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Startseite - Facility Management Forum - Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
 

Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 1

LEXICON English
Cable trays
Open, suspended troughs that hold data, signal, and power cables.
CAD
Computer-aided design. An automated software program used to develop and manage construction drawings and other types of drawings associated with facilities.
CAFM System
Computer-aided facilities management system. A collective group of computer hardware and software systems used to automate typical facilities management operations such as leasing, maintenance, property management, space inventory, furniture inventory, and drawings production.
Caisson
A cylindrical shaft driven into the ground and filled with reinforced or unreinforced concrete. Used in foundation work for bridges spanning rivers and for high-rise buildings.
Calcium
One of the principal elements making up the earth\'s crust, the compounds of which, when dissolved in water, make the water hard. The presence of calcium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds, which are means of clearly identifying hard water.
Calibration
The exact setting of control devices to render accurate readings — e.g., thermostats and other sensors.
Caliper
Tree size determined by the diameter of the trunk 1 ft (30.5 cm) above the ground.
Call-by-call
A telecommunications service that allows the twenty-four channels on a T-1.5 line to be used for any type of call (voice, fax, data, video).
Canedla or candle power
The unit of light intensity or brightness; abbreviated cd. One candela is the intensity of the light produced in one direction by a burning candle of standard size.
Cant strip
An inclined, continuous strip of wood that supports the flashing on a roof. This base forms a triangle with a structural deck and a parapet wall or other vertical surface. The 45 degree slope of exposed surface of cant strip provides a gradual transition for base flashing and roofing membrane from the horizontal roof surface to the vertical wall surface.
Cap flashing
See Flashing.
Cap sheet
A sheet of mineral-surfaced coated felt (or a coated felt without mineral surfacing) used as the top ply of built-up roofing membrane.
Capacitance
Property by which an electrical component (a capacitor) stores and later releases electric energy; abbreviated C.
Capacitor
(1) A device used to temporarily store electric energy in a circuit by establishing an electrostat field between two conducting media. (2) An electrical device that stores electricity for short periods of time; used in ballasts for light fixtures, in electronic equipment, and to provide increased starting torque in some motors.
Capacitor-run motor or permanent-capacitor motor
A split-phase motor that always has a capacitor and auxiliary winding in the circuit during operation. Improves overall motor power factor.
Capacitor-start motor
A split-phase motor with a capacitor connected in series with the starting winding. Each is energized only during starting. Exhibits high torque for starting under load.
CAPACITOR-STARTING/RUN MOTOR Capacitor-starting/run motor
A split-phase motor with two parallel capacitors — connected in series with the auxiliary winding. High starting torque, high power factor.
Capital
(1) Corporate assets in the form of cash; capital projects add asset value to a corporate portfolio and show up on the balance sheet. See also Operating Funds. (2) The store of produced goods that is saved, or wealth that is represented by the surplus of production above the level of consumption.
Capital budget
Corporate funding allocated to the production of assets and capital gains that have residual value for longer than one year. Capital is usually generated from equity investment (stocks) or debt instruments, such as bonds or mortgages. Capital budgets span several years. See also Operating Budget.
Capital expenditure
Those costs incurred by acquiring or upgrading assets that produce revenue. Capital expenditures are expected to produce a return in the form of increased project value that appears in a corporate balance sheet. They may include tenant build-out costs, renovation costs, capital repair items, and commissions.
Capital gain
Gain resulting from the sale of investment property.
Capital Project
A project that creates residual asset value to a company. Most require the approval of top corporate management, compete with nondepartmental capital projects for funding, and often are highly visible and may be politically sensitive.
Capitalization
A process through which future income streams are transformed into present value, resulting in the elimination of a consideration of economic profits. The conversion of expected future benefits into a capital sum. The discounting of future incomes to present value.
CAPITALIZATION RATE (CAP RATE) Capittalization rate (CAP RATE)
An income rate that reflects an investor\'s analysis of risk. It is used to convert a single year\'s net operating income expectancy into a price or value. An investor\'s cap rate is also considered the desired rate of return.
Captive insurer
An insurance company set up by a business whose sole or major customer is the business itself.
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance.
Caretaker function
Emphasis on facilities operations and maintenance based on standard work performance criteria or guidelines set by management.
Cargo insurance
Coverage for property that is in the process of being transported from one place to another.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
A cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) causing pain, numbness, and tingling in the hands due to compression of the median nerve.
Carpet tile
Carpeted flooring sold as tiles, usually 24 in. by 24 in. See also Broadloom and Modular Carpet.
Carriers
Shelves into which telecommunications system circuit packs are installed. (Do not confuse this term with a Local Exchange Carrier or Long-Distance Carrier.) See also Resellers.
Carryover
The entrainment of boiler water solids in the steam system due to mechanical or chemical conditions.
Cartridge fuse
A fuse that consists of a cylindrical insulated housing with a copper ferrule, or tubular section, at each end. The element inside the fuse is connected by the two ferrules.
CAS
Call accounting system. A telecommunications system that maintains a database of all calls made from the system and enables users to identify abuse, bill charges back to departments or clients, and track trends for use in budget development.
Case goods
Independent, freestanding desks, tables, credenzas, file cabinets, and bookcases; chairs of all sorts, whether ergonomic or not.
Casement
A window with a sash that opens or hinges at the side, or the sash itself.
Cash expense
An expense for which money is paid to someone else; canceled checks and receipts are retained as evidence of the transaction. This type of expense constitutes the great majority of deductible expenses. See also Noncash Expense.
Cash flow
Actual cash, or spendable income, that remains after expenses and debt service are subtracted from the gross income of an investment or enterprise. The flow of funds into and out of a firm or economic enterprise.
Cash-accounting method
A method which measures cash flow computed by taking any cash-income received, less cash-expense paid.
Cash-on-cash return
A ratio derived by dividing the actual income received from an enterprise by the actual cash invested in the enterprise. Also known as the equity-dividend rate.
Catalog-based CAFM applications
Furniture and equipment inventory management systems that track assets by a catalog number that encompasses several characteristics; useful for tracking multiple quantities of the same item. See also Asset-Based CAFM Applications.
Catch basin
A manufactured device that surrounds the fill pipe of an underground storage tank to catch overfill or spilling during filling operations.
Cathode
A metal that collects the metal ions emitted from the anode during corrosion.
Cathodes
Areas along the metal surface which attract the electrons from the anode. The cathode area controls how fast the metal loss occurs at the anode.
Cathodic Protection
An engineered solution for preventing corrosion of steel or other metal structures by using induced currents to counteract the natural corrosion process.
Cation
A positively charged ion that is attached to the cathode in electrolysis.
Cation Exchange
In water softening, this is principally the exchange of calcium and magnesium ions in water for sodium ions in an insoluble ion exchange material. Ferrous iron and other metals such as manganese and aluminum are sometimes present in small quantities. These metals are also exchanged, but they may precipitate and foul the exchanger bed.
Caveat Emptor
(1) Latin for \"let the buyer beware!\" A buyer should inspect the goods or realty before purchase, because the buyer buys \"as is\" and at his or her own risk. (2) A principle of law that states that a purchaser of an item is responsible for examining and judging for himself or herself the acceptability of the item (i.e., the purchaser buys at his or her own risk).
CCTV
Closed circuit television.
CD
An informal abbreviation for construction document.
CD-ROM
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. An electronic computer data storage device that can be used to manage large volumes of information.
CEC
Canadian Electrical Code. In Canada, strict electrical codes and standards written to safeguard the health and safety of people from the hazards inherent in using electricity; published by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), with direct references to the standards of various trade and professional groups.
Ceding Company
An insurance company that purchases reinsurance.
Ceiling concentration
An airborne concentration of a toxic substance in the work environment that should never be exceeded; often measured in fifteen-minute intervals.
CEL
See Consultants\' Environmental Liability Coverage.
Cell
The intersection of a column and a row on a spreadsheet or table.
Cellular deck
A honeycomb-like pattern of preformed sheet steel used as a form when pouring concrete floors in many commercial buildings.
Centralized Management
Management of a business entity that is concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals as compared to the number of owners.
Centralized Processing
Computer systems based on a large mainframe computer to which many terminals are attached. All data processing is done at the central unit rather than at the users\' terminals.
Centralized station energy management control system
An Energy Management Control System (EMCS) that uses a centralized computer to control sensors and actuators operating building equipment.
CENTREX
Telephone service leased from the local phone company. The service extends the capabilities and intelligence of the phone company\'s central office via controller equipment located in a customer\'s building.
Centrifugal Compressor
A compressor using a high-speed impeller or motor to compress refrigerant volume instead of using pistons.
Centrifugal switch
A switch mechanism, mounted on a motor shaft, that typically opens a circuit when the motor speed reaches the correct speed.
CEPA
Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The Canadian regulations governing the enforcement of environmental laws at the federal level.
Ceramic tile
A material consisting of a fired clay body with a decorative face, produced in slab form.
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act. An act of Congress that makes the owners or operators of real property liable for the cleanup of environmental hazards, regardless of whether they were responsible for them or not.
CERCLIS
CERCLA Information System. Maintained by EPA for reporting information collected under CERCLA.
CERLA or superfund
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, a federal statute that imposes liability on a wide variety of potentially responsible parties for cleaning up hazardous substances released or posing a threat of release into the environment.
Certificate Holder
The party to whom the insurance certificate is sent.
Certificate of coverage
The evidence of coverage given to the employee to show that he or she has group health, life, or dental insurance coverage.
Certificate of deposit
An evidence of debt issued by a bank or other financial intermediary for a fixed period of time and rate of interest.
Certificate of insurance
Written verification of types, terms, and amounts of insurance carried by the named insured, which are sent to those who require proof of such coverage. See also Certificate of Coverage.
Certificate of limited partnership
A certificate that legally creates a limited partnership when it is filed with the state in which the limited partnership is formed.
Certificate of occupancy
A certificate issued by a local government authorizing occupancy of a space that has been found to meet building code requirements and is considered safe for human occupancy.
Certified employee benefits specialist (CEBS)
A designation awarded to those in the employee benefits field upon completion of ten examinations.
Certified industrial hygienist
A professional qualified by education, training, and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate, and develop controls for occupational health hazards; certified to practice by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.
Certified marketing director (CMD)
A professional certification offered by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC).
Certified property manager (CPM)
A professional classification within the Institute of Real Estate Management (IREM) that is common in asset management.
Certified shopping center manager (CSM)
A professional certification offered by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC).
CFCs
Chlorofluorocarbons. Environmentally hazardous substances, now being phased out of use, found in air-conditioning and fire suppression systems.
CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute)
The physical volume of air moved by a fan and expressed as fan outlet conditions.
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations. An annual compilation of U.S. regulations divided into titles and then into parts, subparts, and paragraphs.
Chain of command
The line of authority in an organization, from the most senior company officer to each employee. See also Line Authority.
Chaining logic
A strict, sequentially-based mathematical logic system in which the operator is assigned prior to entering the numeric value.
Chalking
A powdery surface on a coat of paint.
Change in service
A closure option for tanks being used to store products different from those originally intended.
Change orders
Revisions to the scope of construction work, in terms of time, physical space, or funding, made after the construction contract has been initiated.
Characteristic waste
A solid waste that meets the criteria of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
Chargeback
A cost for facilities department services, materials, or products levied on an end user of space.
Chargeback system
An administrative mechanism for billing the costs of facilities operations and services to facilities customers, usually on the basis of each customer\'s actual costs and/or share of the total area of the corporate space inventory.
Chargeback system
A system of cost control that requires the requesting unit or organization to pay for work done to its area.
Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC) and Certified Financial Planner (CFP)
Designations awarded to those in the tax planning and investment fields.
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
A designation roughly similar to the CPCU for those in the life insurance field.
Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU)
A designation awarded to those in the property and casualty area who have passed a series of ten examinations covering such areas as risk management, law, accounting, and insurance.
Chattels
Any movable personal property (things).
Checking or crazing
A pattern of fine cracks in a paint surface caused by stress in the paint film.
Check-the-box regulations
Tax regulations adopted by the U.S. Treasury Department and the Internal Revenue Service that allow certain business organizations to elect whether to be treated as a corporation or as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
Chelation therapy
Medical treatment in which a drug that is attracted to metals (such as lead) is infused into a patient\'s vein. The drug binds to the metal in the blood; both the drug and the metal are then excreted.
Chemical biocide
A treatment specifically designed to control microbiological organisms in a water system.
Chemical corrosion inhibitors
Special chemicals, that inhibit corrosion by forming a protective film layer on metal surfaces or by destroying corrosive materials such as oxygen.
Chemical treatment program
An overall plan to control corrosion, scale, fouling, and microbiological growth.
Chipping or flaking
A condition in which paint breaks away from the surface, usually caused by lack of surface preparation.
Chroma or intensity
The brightness of a color.
Chromaticity or color temperature
A common measurement of the color of a light source on heat; measured in degrees Kelvin (K).
Chronic effect
A response to being exposed to a hazard that may take days, months, or years to develop.
Chrysotile
A white, serpentine type of asbestos mineral that is the most common form used in buildings.
Churn
The total number of employee workplace moves made in a year, divided by the total number of office employees in that facility, multiplied by 100.
Churn rate
The annual rate of reconfiguration, relocation, or other physical change in a facility expressed as a percentage of square feet (square meters) or population involved in the change.
Cinder blocks
Concrete masonry units used in many types of masonry construction, either loadbearing or nonloadbearing, hollow or solid. Made from an aggregate of cleaned cinders from coal-fueled power plants mixed in a portland cement paste and formed into blocks.
Circuit
A distinct geographic area that defines the jurisdictional boundaries of each of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.
Circuit Analyzer
A device that plugs into standard receptacles and can function simply as a voltage tester — which indicates the available voltage only — or incorporates sophisticated circuits with digital readouts.
Circuit breakers
Devices designed so a circuit can be opened and closed manually. A circuit will also open automatically if a predetermined amount of overcurrent flows through it, without damaging the circuit breaker when it is being used correctly within its rating.
Circuit protection device
Devices that detect any unsafe increase in current flow and automatically open the affected circuit.
Circular mil
The standard used for wire sizes larger than 4/0, AWG. The smallest-diameter wire in this system is 250,000 circular mils, written 250 kcmil or 250 MCM. The largest wire in this system is 2 million circular mils, written 2,000 kcmil or 2,000 MCM.
Circulation area
The portion of the gross area of a building required for physical access to various divisions and subdivisions of space.
Circulation space
The area allocated to corridors and aisles.
Civil law
Body of law concerned with private rights and remedies.
Civil procedure
The body of law that governs the practices, procedures, and methods used in civil litigation within a particular court system.
Claims adjuster
The insurance representative who investigates and settles claims on behalf of the insurer.
Claims-made policy
Liability policy in which the claim must actually be made during the policy period and, perhaps, even reported to the insurance company during the policy period.
Claims-made trigger
A limitation on claims to those made during the time when a policy is in effect, regardless of when the event causing the claim occurred.
Class (of buildings)
The method used to determine the desirability of one building over another using age, location, and quality of improvements as determining factors. Usually defined as Class A, B, or C.
Class A fire
A fire involving combustible materials such as paper and trash.
Class B Fire
A fire involving flammable liquids or grease.
Class C Fire
A fire involving electrical equipment.
Class D fire
A fire involving combustible metals such as magnesium or potassium.
Class rating
A system of rating risks in a standardized manner based on general characteristics the risks have in common.
Clay soil
Composed of microscopically small mineral particles, flattened and fitting closely together.
Clean air act
A law that authorizes comprehensive control strategies that regulate sources of air emissions and establish ambient air quality standards. Regulations are published by the EPA in 40 CFR 52-99.
Clean power
Electric power that has been filtered to eliminate any electromagnetic interference, harmonic distortion, or \"noise.\"
Clean room
The intermediate area between the outside environment and a sterile environment or between a contaminated environment and a noncontaminated environment.
Cleaner
A worker whose duties consist only of cleaning.
Cleanser
A scouring material that cleans primarily by abrasive action.
Clerical activities
Tasks such as data entry, customer service, and word processing.
Clinical cleaning
Removes all traces of dirt of any kind, including bacteria and viruses.
Clock speed
The frequency at which a CPU processes instructions, measured in megahertz (millions of cycles per second, abbreviated as MHz).
Closed plan
An approach to designing workspace with a predominance of full-height walls and few or no screens, panels, or modular furniture.
Closed recirculating system
A water system in which the water is continuously reused. A closed recirculating system is common in chilled water loops in air conditioning systems and hot water recirculating systems.
Closed-loop geothermal heat pump
A heat pump that uses the earth as a heat source or heat sink. Heat transfer liquid remains in a sealed pipe, and is continuously circulated through the loop.
Closing
The settlement of the sale of real estate when the purchaser delivers the purchase price and the seller delivers the deed to the real estate.
Closure
Removal of an existing underground storage tank; may be temporary, permanent, or a change in service.
Clouds on title
A cited exception on a title report that can impede the transfer of clear title of a property during buying or selling transactions; usually involves a lien or some unresolved claim.
CLU
See Chartered Life Underwriter.
CMS
Call management system. A telecommunications system that can assess the productivity of a telephone order or telemarketing group; it can pinpoint areas of the operation that need improvement and provide a group manager with enough information to reassign resources.
Coal-tar pitch
A dark brown to black solid hydrocarbon mixture obtained from the residuum of the distillation of coke-oven tar, used as a waterproofing agent of dead-level or low-slope built-up roofs. Coal-tar pitch is supplied in a narrow range of softening points, from 140°F to 155°F (60°C to 68°C). Compare with Asphalt.
Coated base sheet or felt
A felt sheet previously saturated (impregnated with asphalt) and then coated with a harder, more viscous asphalt, which greatly increases its impermeability to moisture.
Coating
Any material spread over the surface of an object to protect the surface from deterioration caused by the object\'s environment.
Coaxial cable
A combination of a single wire surrounded by insulation and a woven copper braid that shields against electromagnetic noise.
COBRA
See Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reform Act.
Code
A set of legal requirements adopted by a governing body as the minimum standards for a material, component, or system, and intended to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the public.
Coefficient Of Performance (COP)
The ratio of useful heating or cooling provided by a system to the energy consumed by the system in delivering the heating or cooling; in consistent units for a specific temperature. Higher COPs indicate higher system efficiencies.
Coercive Remedies
Remedies that involve orders issued by a court to do or refrain from doing something; these commands are backed by the contempt power of the court.
Cohesion
The ability of a new coat of paint to bond to a surface.
Coinsurance (Health insurance)
The agreed-upon percentage of the bill for covered medical expenses paid by the insurance company after the deductible is paid by the insured individual.
Coinsurance clause (property insurance)
The amount of each loss that the insurance company pays according to a specific ratio between the amount of insurance carried, the amount of insurance required, and the amount of loss.
COLA
See Cost-Of-Living Adjustment.
Cold site
A redundant Secured Compartmental Information Facility (SCIF) kept in a ready state to start operation on very short notice but not kept running concurrently with the primary site. See also Hot Site.
Cold-process (roofing)
Any bituminous membrane comprising layers of coated felts bonded with a cold-applied asphalt roof cement and surfaced with cutback or emulsified asphalt roof coating.
Collateral
Property pledged by a borrower to protect the interests of a lender.
Collateral contract
A contract that allows for the possibility that the parties entered into two contracts — a written contract and an oral contract that relates to the collateral item.
Collectors
A term used to identify a system designed to collect backwash water from the surface of ion exchange beds.
Collision Insurance
A type of physical damage auto insurance that covers losses caused by collision or overturn of the vehicle.
Color
The eye\'s perception of light reflected from a surface.
Color rendition
The spectrum of frequencies of light waves emitted by an electric lamp. Determines our ability to see various colors without natural light.
Color temperature
The apparent color temperature of a light source, measured in degrees Kelvin (K), indicates its degree of warmth or coolness, higher numbers indicating coolness.
Color-Rendering Index (CRI)
Describes an object\'s color — on a scale from 0 to 100 — when viewed in a nonincandescent light and compared to an incandescent lamp with the same color temperature in degrees Kelvin (K).
Color-Rendering Properties
A general expression for the appearance of surface colors when illuminated by light from a given source compared with their appearance under light from a reference source. A color-rendering index (CRI) number is assigned to a light source based on its ability to match the reference standard.
Combinable entities
A rule of common ownership which states that there must be at least 51 percent common ownership for entities to be combined for the purpose of insurance.
Combination
Increasing the number of units exposed to loss.
Combined sewer system
A sewer system that conveys both sanitary sewage and stormwater flows.
Combined Single Limit of Liability (CSL)
Bodily injury liability and property damage liability expressed as a single sum of coverage per occurrence, commonly used in automobile insurance.
Combustible Liquids
Liquids with flash points above 100°F (37.8°C) but below 200°F (93.3°C).
Commercial bank
A financial intermediary having the principal function of financing the production, sale, and distribution of goods and services.
Commercial comparability
In facilities management, comparing service delivery in corporate-owned space to how the same services are provided and billed in commercial-leased space.
Commercial General Liability policy (CGL)
Liability coverage section with separate limits of coverage for claims alleging liability arising from an occurrence, meaning events that occur over time or gradually.
Commercial lines manual
A manual that contains many rules concerning such areas as classification of risks, the proper premium exposure basis for each classification, and a detailed background summary of general procedures in rating, categorizing, and pricing risks.
Commercial paper
An unsecured, interest-bearing or discount obligation of a large, creditworthy corporation issued for periods of 1 to 270 days.
Commitment fee
A fee paid by the borrower to the lender in consideration of the lender\'s processing of the loan application and commitment.
Commodity
An economic good that is useful or valuable.
Common Area Maintenance (CAM) charges
Fees charged directly to tenants by owners for upkeep of common areas.
Common areas
Areas of a building usable by all occupants or visitors: lobbies and reception areas, halls and stairs, and rest rooms.
Common control
Used to refer to a telecommunications system\'s CPU where the system memory and those control cards critical to the overall operation of the system are stored.
Common law
Judge-made law. A body of law developed over the years by the U.S. federal and state appeals courts. (2) Body of law derived from usage, custom, and judgments and decrees of the courts and not from any written statute or regulation.
Common stock
Represents fundamental ownership of the firm after all other legal claims upon the firm have been paid.
Communication
Includes oral, written, and graphic communication; presentations to all levels of management; development of standards, work practices, and procedures; and development and management of specialized and technical information in a management context.
Communication interaction zone
The distance established between us and other people for different types of communication.
Community property
A principle in property law holding that property obtained during a marriage is jointly owned by the marital parties.
Commutator
That portion of the rotor on which the brushes from the stator ride or make electrical conduct in a DC motor.
Comparable sold properties
Properties that are very similar to the subject property and that have sold and closed in the last 180 days.
Comparative negligence
A principle of law that apportions negligence in an accident according to the percentage of negligence applicable to each party.
Comparative negligence
Legal doctrine that compares the relative fault of the plaintiff and the defendant in a negligence action and awards damages based on the defendant\'s percentage of fault.
Comparison grid
A spreadsheet used to compare similar properties and make adjustments for differences among these properties for the purpose of estimating value.
Compatibility
(1) Generally, the similarity of data file formats that enables a file produced by one computer system or program to be imported successfully into another computer system or program, without first having to convert the file. Refers also to operating systems and software. (2) The ability of one paint to mix with another.
Compensatory damages
Damages awarded to compensate a plaintiff for actual harm or loss suffered. Intended to restore the plaintiff to his or her same position prior to the injury.
Competency assessment
A process of identifying underlying characteristics that lead to successful performance among a group of employees (typically a department), within a job category, or at a given hierarchical level in an organization.
Competitive Market Analysis (CMA)
See Broker\'s Price Opinion
Competitive upgrade
A discount offered by a software or hardware vendor to switch from a competitor\'s product to theirs.
Complaint
The first pleading filed in a civil lawsuit.
Complete performance
The fulfillment of all obligations or duties of a contract.
Completed operations liability
A named insured\'s (contractor\'s) liability for claims alleging loss that is caused by faulty work and that occurs after the work has been completed.
Compliance
The act of meeting the explicit and implicit requirements of environmental health and safety laws.
Compliance (Managerial) Audits
These audits review compliance with procedures and verify whether transactions are properly documented and on file.
Composite data
Information from sources available to the public. This is also known as public data.
Compost
Organic matter made from decaying remains of plants and animals.
Compound document
A document produced by using dynamic data exchange (DDE).
Compound interest
Interest that is earned on cash assets and is immediately included in the investment principal. Compound interest is interest that is earned on itself, thereby increasing the actual interest derived.
Compound motor
A Direct Current (DC) motor that combines the operating characteristics of series and shunt motors.
Comprehensive boiler and machinery insurance
Coverage for all objects at the insured locations, rather than coverage only for certain \"scheduled\" objects.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund
Legislation passed in 1980 that imposes a standard of strict, joint, and several liability on entities associated with contaminated property. The law is applied retroactively to sites already contaminated.
Comprehensive Insurance
Another type of physical damage auto insurance to cover losses not caused by a collision or overturn of the vehicle.
Comprehensive major medical plans
Standard comprehensive major medical plans underwritten by an insurance company or by Blue Cross and Blue Shield. These plans usually set deductibles, coinsurance, out-of-pocket maximums, and overall maximum coverage limits.
Compressed gases
Contained gases with pressures greater than 40 psi.
Compression fittings Couplings used with an Electrical Metal Tubing (EMT) conduit that provide a moisture seal. Their use is allowed by the National Electric Code/Canadiam Electric Code (NEC/CEC) in some wet locations.
Compressive stress
A force tending to crush a material, such as the downward force within a brick wall caused by the weight of the upper bricks.
Compressor
A primary refrigeration system component that increases the pressure and temperature of a refrigerant.
Computer Literacy
Knowledge of and ease in using computer terminology, the basic design and general structure of hardware, and software programs.
Computer-Aided Facilities Management
See CAFM.
Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (SMMS)
User-friendly computer software packages used in building operation and maintenance departments to record, store, analyze, and manipulate vast quantities of data to control costs and improve productivity.
Computer-use adoption rates
The rates at which manual jobs are automated.
Concealment
Hiding facts from the insurer.
Concentration
The buildup of contaminants in boiler or tower water due to evaporation.
Concentration-dilution cycle
A refrigeration cycle that transfers heat by using a lithium bromide or other type solution to alternately absorb heat at a low-temperature level and reject it at a high-temperature level.
Concentrator
An absorption chiller component that separates refrigerant from a lithium bromide-refrigerant (or dilute) solution by heating the solution and vaporizing the refrigerant.
Conceptual competition
A competitive process that asks each broker or agent to analyze the loss exposures, risk management, and insurance needs of a business and to then propose an appropriate plan of coverages and services.
Concrete
An artificial stone made by binding together particles of aggregate with a paste made of cement and water.
Concrete Blocks
Concrete masonry units used in many types of masonry construction, either loadbearing or nonloadbearing, hollow or solid. Made from stone or other types of aggregate in a portland cement paste.
Concrete seal
A poured concrete cap usually near the surface of a monitoring well used to secure the placement of the well. [BOMI Institute source]
Concurrent condition
The occurrence of a condition precedent that obligates both parties to a bilateral contract to perform at the same time.
Concurrent ownership
Ownership of a particular parcel of real property by two or more persons either as joint tenants, tenants in common, or as tenants by the entirety.
Concurrent work process
Multiple tasks being performed at once. See also Linear Work Process.
Condemnation
(1) The taking, by a governmental entity, of private property for public use through the exercise of government\'s right of eminent domain. Condemnation proceedings must include payment of fair compensation for the property that is converted to public use. (2) The process through which the water content of air liquifies as the air temperature drops or atmospheric pressure rises. See also Dew Point.
Condenser
A heat exchanger in which hot, pressurized refrigerant is condensed through the transfer of heat to cooler surrounding air, water, or earth. The condenser is the heat rejection component of an air conditioning system.
Condition precedent
An act or event that must occur before one of the parties to the contract is obliged to perform.
Condition subsequent
The occurrence of an act or event that can relieve a contract party from an obligation to perform a promise or to compensate the other party for breach of contract.
Conditional contract
Contract in which the insured or the insurer are required to do certain things only if and when certain conditions occur.
Conditions
The section of an insurance policy that lays out the general ground rules of the insurance policy. It describes the rights and obligations of both the insured and the insurer.
Condominium interest
One in which various owners have a fractional interest in a larger property.
Conductance
A measure of the ability of a material to allow electrons to flow. Conductance, abbreviated G, is the reciprocal of resistance.
Conduction
The transfer of heat through matter due to temperature differences between adjacent objects.
Conductivity
The measure of water\'s capacity to carry an electric current. The greater the water\'s mineral content, the higher its conductivity.
Conductor
In electrical circuits, the wire that carries current to the appliance that uses the current. Commonly used conductors include copper and aluminum.
Conduit
An enclosure for wire or cable whose primary purpose is to protect the wires running through it from physical damage and excessive moisture. Metal conduit may also serve as a continuous grounding connection.
Conectivity
Accessing and using files in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. In building automation systems, the ability to monitor the controls of one manufacturer\'s system from another system. See also Interoperability.
Config.sys
The standard name of the file containing instructions telling a computer how to configure itself to accommodate peripherals.
Configuration
The process of organizing how program and data files are managed as well as telling a computer what sorts of devices it must work with and how to communicate with them.
Confined space
A workplace area — large enough and configured so that a person can bodily enter it — having limited or restricted egress, and not designed for continuous occupancy.
Confusion
The blending, mixing, intermingling, or merging of goods so that they can no longer be distinguished.
Conifers
See Softwood.
Connectors
Rivets, welds, bolts, etc., used to connect lengths of the structural members used in wide-span designs.
Consent
The voluntary agreements to an act or a proposal. Consent may be either express or implied.
Consequential damages
Damages that, although they are caused by the contract breach, do not result directly from the breach but rather from special circumstances.
Consideration
That which is bargained for in exchange for a promise or performance.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reform Act (COBRA)
A federal act that makes it mandatory for employers to offer continued health benefits to employees (at the employee\'s expense) for up to 18 months after employment has been terminated, for up to 29 months if the employee is on Social Security disability, and for up to 36 months for dependents of those employees.
Conspiracy
A crime that requires an agreement between two or more persons, an intent to enter into such agreement, and an intent to accomplish either some criminal or unlawful act, or a lawful act by unlawful means.
Constant-Air-Volume (CAV) Systems
A type of air handling system that maintains comfort in buildings by providing a constant flow of air at varying temperatures.
Construction administration
General management of the construction phase of a project, including review of shop drawings, approval of progress payments and change orders, and interpretation of construction documents.
Construction area
That portion of the gross area of a building rendered unusable by the presence of structural elements such as the walls and columns.
Construction contract
The written legal agreement between a property owner and a construction contractor for provision of construction labor, services, and materials for a specific project.
Construction contract documents
Five types of documents used for construction contracts: the written legal agreement for construction, construction drawings and specifications, addenda, and change orders.
Construction drawings
A complete set of architectural drawings with keyed notes detailing the work required and types of materials to be used in constructing the improvements; synonymous with working drawings.
Construction loan
A loan for the purpose of financing the construction or substantial renovation of buildings and other improvements.
Construction loan agreement
A loan document that sets forth the conditions for disbursement of construction loan funds.
Construction management
Management of the construction components of a project, such as selection of materials, construction methods, and how architectural detailing is approached; does not address how an occupant\'s needs are identified or how a strategy is formulated to make a project support corporate business objectives. A construction manager addresses the requirements of construction, not those of the occupants or the company.
Construction manager
An individual or firm that provides construction services to an owner/landlord in an owner-representative form. See also General Contractor.
Construction ratio
In the U.S. General Services Administration, a numeric ratio of the cost to build special space of a given type compared to the cost of building typical office space.
Construction standard
Standards that apply to building construction but, in facilities management, most often to occupant space, such as typical interior partition assemblies and which walls will be insulated or run slab-to-slab. In commercial leasing, such standards are set during lease negotiations in the work letter.
Construction supervisor
The day-to-day manager of the construction process who ensures that a project is built according to the drawings and specifications.
Constructive (or involuntary) bailment
A bailment in which the bailee does not desire to take control over the bailed property.
Consultants
Important members of a property-management team which might include: attorney, appraiser, architect, accountant, contractor, and environmental consultant.
Consultants\' Environmental Liability coverage (CEL)
A form that combines coverage for pollution liability and professional liability.
Consumer Price Index
A government statistic used to measure inflation.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
An index that attempts to statistically measure the effect of inflation on the purchasing power of a U.S. dollar. This monthly report is published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
Containment
A method of protecting both workers and the environment by controlling exposures to the dust and debris from hazardous materials such as lead created during abatement.
Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in quantities above regulatory limits or at levels representing elevated risk to those who are exposed.
CONTIGUOUS SPACE Contiguous space
Space that is directly adjacent to another space or spaces, or space that is directly above or below a specific space.
Continental seating
Auditorium seating characterized by deeper spacing between rows and fewer aisles compared with conventional seating.
Contingency
An unresolved issue that determines whether a buyer will finalize an offer to purchase.
Contingency funds
Funds allotted to cover unexpected costs that may be incurred throughout the project.
Contingency plan
A document that sets out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to follow in case an accident, fire, or explosion releases hazardous waste that could threaten human health or the environment.
Contingent interest
An equity participation by lenders that allows lenders to participate in the cash flow of a project after specified income objectives are met.
Continuous current rating
The ampere rating at which a circuit breaker can operate continuously without exceeding its thermal limits.
Continuous power
Electric power that ensures no interruption in service, even during a power failure. Continuity is usually provided by a an Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) system.
Contract
A promise or set of promises that the law will enforce as a duty, or for which, if broken, the law gives a remedy.
Contract administration
In the context of the provision of Architect/Engineer (A/E) services, the administration of the construction contract, including supervision of the bidding process, site visits, inspection of the work, review of change order requests, interpretation of drawings and specs, review of shop drawing submittals, and attendance at job progress meetings.
Contract documents
The combined documents of working drawings, details, and specifications from which a project will be built. See also Working Drawings.
Contract of adhesion
A contract offered to the insured individual or small business as a standardized document to be accepted or declined by the insured without changes or bargaining.
Contract of sale
A contract that typically specifies the purchase price and identifies the conditions that must be met in order for each party to complete the transaction.
Contract rental rates
Rental rates to be paid, specified in a lease or other agreement.
Contract uberrimae fidae
Agreement of utmost good faith, in which the insured is required to make known all material and pertinent facts to the insurance company.
Contracting officer
A person officially authorized to contractually bind a company to a contract.
Contractors\' Operations and Professional Services coverage (COPS)
A form that combines pollution liability insurance with professional liability coverage.
Contractors\' Pollution Liability Insurance (CPL)
Coverage that protects contractors from claims of third-party bodily injury and third-party property damage arising from pollution conditions caused during operations.
Contractual liability coverage
Coverage for liability assumed in a contract or agreement that is an insured contract.
Contrarian-investment fund
Sometimes referred to as a \"vulture fund,\" or opportunity fund. Comes into play when property values are depressed, and investors buy up property at depreciated prices, expecting to resell at a higher rate when the economy improves.
Contrast ratio
A numeric ratio of the light reflectance values of two surfaces.
Contribution
A theory that looks at individual portions of the whole property and measures their relative worth.
Contributory Negligence
(1) The principle of law recognizing that injured persons may have contributed to their own injury; under this theory, a defendant may allege that since the defendant and plaintiff were both negligent, each is in the wrong, and neither should be able to collect from the other. (2) Negligent behavior by a plaintiff which, together with the defendant\'s negligence, contributes as a proximate cause to the plaintiff\'s injury and may bar recovery from defendant.
Control Joints
Cracks intentionally formed in concrete at designated intervals to absorb the forces of expansion and contraction in an orderly pattern. Control joints allow a certain amount of tilting and heaving to prevent high stresses from developing and possibly breaking the concrete.
Convection
The transfer of heat by the circulation of a liquid or gas.
Conventional memory
The first 640 kilobytes of memory in a PC. See also Extended Memory and Upper Memory.
Convergent Organization
A type of organization in which related development activities are consolidated and colocated, usually at corporate headquarters (e.g., R&D, design, and product engineering). See also Divergent Organization.
Conversion
(1) Wrongfully taking the property of others into one\'s care, custody, and control and either disposing of it, failing to return it as agreed, refusing to return it, or breaking it while in one\'s possession. (2) Any intentional or unauthorized act which permanently or indefinitely deprives owner of its chattels.
Convertible debt
A debt instrument that can be converted into equity or stock in a project or firm.
Convertible mortgage
A mortgage that enables the lender, at its option, to convert all or part of the mortgage debt into equity in the project.
Convertible security
A corporate debt instrument that is convertible into either preferred or common stock, or a preferred stock that is convertible into common stock.
Cooling
The process in which heat is transferred (e.g., by evaporation) from one substance to another, cooler substance.
Coordination of benefits
The medical insurance policy provision that is designed to ensure that individuals covered under their employer\'s health plan and also under their spouse\'s health plan cannot be reimbursed more than 100 percent of total covered charges.
Coordination of construction documents
The process of cross-referencing architectural and engineering drawings and specifications for contractual integrity by avoiding dimensional conflicts between systems, inconsistencies between notes on drawings and specifications, and similar problems.
COPE
Acronym for the four most important property underwriting criteria: construction, occupancy, protection, and exposure.
Core competency or functio
A business function directly related to the corporate mission and to sales generation. (Noncore functions include any business function not directly related to a company\'s core business and sales generation, including facilities management.)
Core factor
The number of square feet in a multitenant building devoted to the lobby and hallways and for which each tenant is assessed a certain percentage.
Cork
The light, thick, elastic outer bark of the cork oak tree, found in southern Europe, made in sheets and tiles. Cork has four surface types: (1) natural, (2) waxed, (3) resin-reinforced-waxed, and (4) vinyl.
Corporate Charter
A formal document that accomplishes the incorporation of a legal entity when filed with the state of incorporation.
Corporate mission
The purpose or plan of a company to produce a distinctive good or service.
Corporate real estate
The owned, leased, or subleased real property including land, facilities, and legal commitments (such as easements and rights-of-way) controlled by an organization in support of the organization\'s business mission.
Corporate strategic planning
The process of developing strategies, options, scenarios, and contingencies for pursuing corporate business objectives. See also Strategic Facilities Planning.
Corporation
A body formed and authorized by law to act as a single person, although made up of one or more persons, and legally endowed with multiple rights and duties, including the capacity of succession. (2) A statutorily authorized entity that has a legal existence separate and apart from its owners.
Corrected lead concentration
An amount calculated by subtracting the substrate-effect lead from the apparent lead concentration.
Corrective maintenance
Repair work to restore normal operation in equipment or systems that are deficient or have failed.
Corrective maintenance
Maintenance activities performed because of equipment or system failure. Activities are directed toward the restoration of an item to a specified level of performance. Sometimes called \"breakdown maintenance.\"
Corrosion
The destruction of metal through electrochemical oxidation; the gradual wearing away of material, usually by chemical action.
Corrosion Coupons
Metal strips that are inserted into water to get an indication of the corrosion rates of different metals.
Cosourcing
When a corporation does not want to transfer responsibility for the facility function to a service provider, but desires the results that they have seen through outsourcing done by other companies.
Cost
The total dollar expenditure for any improvement, for either replacement or reproduction cost.
Cost approach
One of the three basic approaches to value computed by determining the value of vacant land, estimating construction costs, and subtracting actual depreciation. When used by appraisers it considers the cost of totally replacing or reconstructing a property, including the purchase of land where the property is located.
Cost center
A program, project, or organizational unit in which budgetary funding is used to sustain operations.
Cost effectiveness
Obtaining the best value for the money, not necessarily the lowest-cost solution.
Cost of operation
The total costs associated with the day-to-day operation of a facility. It includes all maintenance and repair , administrative costs, labor costs, janitorial, housekeeping, all utility costs, and all costs associated with roadways and grounds.
Cost savings / cost avoidance
In cost-benefit analysis, money saved or costs avoided, over existing spending levels, by a proposed initiative. See also Cost-Benefit Analysis.
Cost-benefit analysis
An analysis of the ratio of the monetary and nonmonetary benefits of an item or proposal to its monetary and nonmonetary costs.
Cost-Of-Living Adjustment (COLA)
An optional provision in disability insurance policies to increase the benefits payable over time based on a cost-of-living index.
Coulomb
A quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor; (6.25 x 1018 electrons) coulombs per second equals one ampere.
Counter electromotive force
The Electromotive Force (emf) that opposes the flow of current. Just as the windings of a generator produce voltage, the rotor in a motor produces voltage that is counter or opposed to the supply voltage. This counter emf creates additional resistance that must be overcome by the supply voltage.
Counterclaim
A claim brought by a defendant against the plaintiff that will oppose or reduce the plaintiff\'s claims.
Counterflashing
See Flashing.
Coupon
A means by which interest payments are received by a holder of bearer securities. The coupons are physically removed from the security and presented for payment on or after a specified payment due date.
Coupon clipper
A term applied to an individual who, rather than working, lives on interest and dividends received from inherited wealth.
Covenants
A promise contained in a deed or other document under which one party is bound to the other for the performance or nonperformance of a specified act or a particular set of conditions. It is also a private legal restriction on the use of land.
Coventants of title
Legal binding warranties or promises made by the seller of real property in the deed regarding the quality of title to the real property.
Coverage
The surface area in square feet (square meters), or squares to be continuously coated by a specific unit of roofing materials, after allowance is made for specified overlap.
Coverage ratio
The ratio of the annual net operating income from a property to the annual debt service on a mortgage loan on the property. Also termed the debt coverage ratio. The relationship between net operating income and required debt service payments on a loan. Sometimes termed the loan coverage ratio.
CPU
Central processing unit. The basic components of a computer system located on the system board or motherboard inside the case: the silicon chip that processes instructions, ROM, RAM, the power supply, the computer\'s internal clock, hard disk and floppy disk drives, and its ports.
Crack
A tear or break in a membrane, produced by bending or shrinkage, often at a wrinkle.
Cracking or scaling
A paint defect where the surface splits or curls back, usually caused by buildup of too many coats on a surface or by paint applied too thickly.
Cradle to grave
The basic premise behind the Resource Conservation and Recovering Act (RCRA) in defining the liability associated with the management and ownership of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste must be managed properly from the time it is generated until its ultimate treatment or disposal, and beyond.
Crash
The failure or malfunction of computer hardware or software that makes programs inoperable or causes data loss.
Crawling and creeping
A paint defect that develops when paint, varnish, or enamel draws up into beads and does not wet a hard, glossy surface.
Creep
(1) Permanent elongation or shrinkage of a membrane resulting from thermal or moisture changes. (2) Permanent deformation of a structural member, such as framing or deck, resulting from plastic flow under continued stress or dimensional changes accompanying changing moisture content or temperature.
Criminal law
Laws that define which actions are prohibited or illegal and provide for the punishment of those acts.
Crisis management
The practice of attempting to manage by reacting to events rather than anticipating events and planning an appropriate response. See also Reactive Maintenance.
Criteria air pollutants
Substances for which a National Ambient Air Quality Standard has been established under the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments.
Critical path chart
A chart showing the minimum amount of time required to complete a project from beginning to end, and which tasks must be completed before subsequent ones can be started. It is based on the time required for each task, its timing relative to other tasks, and interrelationships between tasks.
Critical radiant flux
A measure of a carpet\'s resistance to bursting into flames in the presence of a heat source.
Crocidolite
A blue type of asbestos mineral that is the least common form found in buildings.
Cross training
Preparing for and participating in multiple facilities management functions as part of a job.
Cross-claim
A claim brought by co-defendants or co-plaintiffs against each other. These parties are on the same side of a main litigation.
CSHOs
Compliance safety and health officers. Personnel within the ten OSHA regions who are responsible for ensuring compliance with workplace safety and health standards.
CSI
Customer Satisfaction Index. A baseline index that allows a before-and-after view and ongoing monitoring of contractor performance against an established standard.
CSL
See Combined Single Limit Of Liability.
CTD
Cumulative trauma disorder. An injury resulting from repetitive motions or tasks, which place stress on the body and ultimately result in injury.
Cubic feet (meters)
The volumetric unit used for measuring ion exchange materials. Volume is measured on an in-place, backwashed, drained, and settled condition.
Curb appeal
The appeal of a property from the exterior of the rental unit as perceived by a prospective tenant.
Cure period
The time necessary for a market to gain an equilibrium in the real estate market.
Current leasing report
Itemizes current lease negotiations.
Current tracer
A device that can be attached to any accessible point in the circuit to physically trace circuit wiring back through the building.
Current-interrupting rating
The highest current at rated voltage that a fuse or circuit breaker is intended to interrupt without damage under standard operating conditions.
Curtain wall
An external nonloadbearing wall, which is intended to separate the exterior and interior environments and which is fixed to this external building frame.
Custodial area
The sum of floor area used for building protection, care, cleaning, and maintenance.
Custodial housekeeping
Activities performed to keep a facility clean and tidy. See also Improvements and Maintenance.
Custodian
A caretaker, generally in an institution, who has general building maintenance duties in addition to cleaning.
Customer service agreements
Informal minicontracts between the facilities department and its customers for facilities services.
Customization
The process of modifying a standard-issue software program to meet the needs of a specific user or requirement, usually by altering the source code (programming language) of the original program. See also Fine Tuning.
Cutback
An organic, solvent-thinned, soft or fluid cold-process bituminous roof coating or flashing cement.
Cycle
One complete sine wave, which is one 360° rotation of a simple Alternating Current (AC) generator.
Cycles of concentration
The ratio of the concentration of a chemical or mineral in the recirculating water to its concentration in the makeup water. Also called concentration ratio.
Cyclical maintenance
Maintenance that can be predicted and performed on a regular basis (cycle).
D&O (Directors and Officers) liability insurance
Professional liability insurance for directors and officers of companies which provides coverage in two basic areas: (1) Coverage for the business to reimburse it for having to reimburse the directors and officers for their financial losses and expenses (2) Direct coverage for the directors and officers for their losses and expenses that are not reimbursed by the firm.
DADO
A rectangular groove cut across the grain of a wood blocking member, typically to provide edge canting at the outer edge of the roof.
Damages
Monetary compensation that may be sought or awarded in court as a remedy for a tort or a breach of contract. The term is sometimes also used to mean actual harm or loss suffered by a plaintiff as a result of a tort committed by another.
Dark shell
Unfinished space with no finishes or building utilities.
Data conversion
Changing information that has been entered using one file format to another file format for import into another application or platform.
Data entry
The process of entering data (usually by typing or electronic transfer from another database) into an electronic record.
Data field
A specific electronic code placed on a certain type of data (identified by the user) that permits rapid retrieval and sorting of all data of a certain type.
Data intensive
he characteristic of certain data, especially automated graphics files, to consume far more disk space and use more computer memory than conventional text files do.
Data path
See Bandwidth.
Database
An automated electronic file(s) in which data is stored; also used to include data stored in any form, automated or not.
Database management system
Computer software used to manage a database.
Day porter services
Services provided by facilities departments for miscellaneous needs of occupants, such as moving boxes and setting up meeting spaces.
DC (Direct Current)
circuit A circuit powered by a source of Electromotive Force (emf) in which the current flows in only one direction.
DDC
Direct digital control. A method of controlling the operation of HVAC systems by automated processing of signals from digital sensors.
DDE
Dynamic data exchange. Importing data from one program to another while keeping the two files linked so that a change in the target application file also changes the original file. See also Compound Document and OLE (Object Linking and Embedding.)
Dead level
Absolutely horizontal, or zero slope. See Slope.
Dead load
The weight of walls, columns, partitions, floors, roofs, and all other permanent construction of a building, including plumbing, stacks, air-conditioning units, or other fixed building service equipment supported by the structure.
Deadband
A preset temperature range across which conditioned spaces are neither heated nor cooled. In this temperature range, the HVAC system provides ventilation only.
Deadband control
A control device that monitors and operates the deadband range and, when necessary, activates the buil
14 Dec 2009
15:52:09
Braun

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