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Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 5


Prestige cleaning
Regular cleaning of surfaces even if dirt is not visible.
Pretensioned concrete
A type of concrete strengthened by stretching steel cables in the molds before the concrete hardens.
Pretreatment chemicals
Chemicals developed to protect metal surfaces in water system equipment during the period of initial start-up.
Pretrial conference
A conference that is usually intended to achieve organizational and clarification objectives, such as resolving certain legal issues, stipulating facts, amending pleadings, and identifying witnesses and exhibits for the trial.
Preventive Maintenance (PM)
Work performed on operational equipment or building systems to ensure uninterrupted, continued, and efficient operation. Includes diagnosis and performance testing.
Primary cell
A battery that can be used only once. Having become discharged, it must be disposed of.
Primary colors
Colors that cannot be made by mixing other colors: red, blue, and yellow.
Primary loads
Loads that cannot be rescheduled to operate during off-peak demand periods.
Primary market
Securities that are purchased directly from the issuing authority at the point in time when they are originally issued.
Prime rate
The rate of interest charged by a financial institution on loans to its most creditworthy customers. It is often thought of as the lowest available interest rate and is used as a benchmark when setting interest rate levels for other borrowers.
Primer (also prime coat)
(1) A preliminary paint coating that, when applied to a bare surface, seals pores in the surface and improves paint adhesion. (2) Any coating of thin liquid bituminous solvent applied to a roofing surface to improve the adhesion of a heavier application of bitumen and to absorb dust.
Principal
One who entrusts and authorizes another (an agent) to act on his or her behalf.
Principle of indemnity
The principle that states that the insured will not profit from the loss, but rather will be restored only to the condition that existed prior to the loss.
Prior approval rate-filing method
The system of rate filing that requires that insurance companies in these states submit their proposed rates to the insurance commissioner for approval before the rates may be used.
Private insurers
Private-sector insurers that insure exposures not usually insured by the government.
Private nuisance
An interference with another's private use and enjoyment of land that does not involve trespassing.
Private office
Offices enclosed by floor-to-ceiling walls.
Private placement
An offering of stock for sale to a limited number of offerees who have access to important information about the issuing corporation and who intend to purchase the stock for investment purposes, rather than for immediate resale.
Private proprietary insurer
Private business that is operated by a private owner for profit.
Pro forma
A financial projection of income and expense for a future period. Proforma literally means "according to form."
Pro rata cancellation
The apportioning of premiums based on what proportionate share of the premium was used up and based on how long the policy was in effect.
Proactive
The planning process necessary to achieve success that involves looking ahead and anticipating the long-term to prepare for the future in the present. It addresses not only urgent matters, but also the important, emphasizing the important matters.
Probability of loss
The likelihood that a loss exposure may result in an actual loss.
Procedures
Specific directions for performing management, maintenance, and other property operations. May change frequently as needs require.
Process wastewater
Water used in the production process of converting raw materials into manufactured goods.
Product standards
Standards that set the quality and durability of scores of mostly perishable and disposable items ranging from the grade of paint used to the density and face weight of carpet selected.
Products and completed operations aggregate limit
Applicable only to products and completed operations claims.
Products liability
(1) A named insured's liability for claims alleging loss caused by a product sold, handled, or distributed by a named insured. (2) Term used to describe the legal liability of commercial sellers and manufacturers to compensate buyers, users, and bystanders for damages or injuries suffered because of a defective condition that makes their product unreasonably dangerous.
Professional
A person who uses a combination of specialized knowledge and expertise tempered with seasoned judgment gained from experience to perform his or her work.
Professional liability insurance
(Also known as malpractice or errors and omissions insurance.) Covers negligent acts of the named insured arising out of the named insured's profession.
Profit center
A product line or organizational unit that generates income for a company.
Profit-sharing plan
A retirement plan designed to provide a fund to pay for retirement income to employees. Such plans depend on varying profits invested from year to year to fund the plans.
Program
A set of commands, written in computer language, that instruct a computer to perform a task or series of tasks. In space planning, a document that defines user needs for space and facilities that will support their daily tasks.
Programmed work
Work done in annual 'slices', normally in all facilities.
Project close-out
Completion of all paperwork, final payments, assembly of operating instructions, and other administrative details at the end of a project.
Project implementation
Includes all stages of executing a project strategy; defining needs, identifying and acquiring space, designing the space, constructing the space, moving in, and occupying the space.
Project management
The organization, direction, and coordination of tasks accomplished to fulfill a chosen facilities strategy. Involves preparing facility plans, as well as planning and managing projects, facilities programs, design services, construction projects, and relocation projects.
Project management systems
A Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) application that organizes complex one-of-a-kind projects involving many steps on interrelated tracks. (e.g., a major construction job or the acquisition and renovation of leased space for a new corporate group).
Project manager
The person who leads and coordinates a project; may be an in-house employee acting on behalf of the facilities management department, an individual on contract to the company, or an employee of a firm retained to manage projects. In small facilities departments, the facilities manager may assume this role.
Project note
An interim security issued by a governmental agency for a specific project which allows the project to proceed while long-term financing is arranged.
Project strategy
A plan for executing a project with enough control to set a clear direction but enough flexibility to respond to events that affect project direction without losing control. Basic strategic questions often begin with "what if."
Project work
A service order that includes work over a specific dollar figure (such as $500), changes the form or function of the facility, or involves multiple trades or skills. See also Service Order.
Promissory note
A loan document that provides evidence of debt and sets forth the terms of repayment.
Promissory warranty
A condition that the insured promises will continue to exist during the life of the policy.
Proof-of-loss form
A document required by the insurer in which you detail the amount of the loss, the circumstances behind the loss, details concerning what property was lost or damaged, and documentation of its value.
Proper parties
The correct parties to a legal action. The first procedural issue necessary to start the judicial process in all civil litigation is to identify the proper parties.
Property
Everything that is capable of being owned by a person or a legal entity.
Property damage
Damage to property of others or the loss of use of that property whether it has been physically damaged or not.
Property management
The process of maintaining and creating value in real property consistent with the owner's objectives and in compliance with the highest standard of professional ethics. In real estate, the process of profitable operation and management of owned, leased, or subleased real property for a building owner, developer, or landlord.
Property manager
The person involved in many functions similar to those performed by an asset manager, such as recommending and implementing capital improvement plans designed to increase rental income; researching and identifying change-of-use opportunities for properties; and originating a remarketing plan on foreclosed real estate. Responsible for the day-to-day operations of a property and execution of the long-term strategic plan developed by the asset manager.
Property transfer
The act of transferring the ownership of property.
Proposal to lease
The landlord's response to the tenant's request for proposal by acknowledging the points on which the landlord and tenant agree and outlining other terms which may not have been included in the request for proposal or terms on which the parties may not yet agree.
Proprietary specifications
Specifications written to identify a particular brand name or source, rather than a generic type of item.
Proprietorship
A lone individual engaged in a for-profit business enterprise.
Protocol
Network software that determines how data will be transmitted, the order in which signals will be sent, and the priority assigned to signals from each computer.
Proton
The relatively large component of an atom with substantial mass and a positive (+) electric charge.
Provisional premium
A premium based on an estimated exposure basis such as sales or payroll that is subject to variation.
Proximate cause
An essential element of a tort, which requires that the defendant's tortious act bear some reasonable causal connection to the plaintiff's injury.
Psychrometrics
The techniques by which air temperature, moisture content, and pressure are related.
Public adjusters
Adjusters who are paid by the insured to help submit a claim properly, to provide advice on achieving the most equitable settlement, and to represent the insured's interest as a go-between with the insurance company. These adjusters often specialize in particularly large, difficult, or complex claims.
Public nuisance
An unreasonable interference with a right of the general public, including interference with the public health, safety, peace, comfort, or convenience.
Public policy
As a legal standard, the term public policy has no fixed definition. Nonetheless, courts find contracts to be against public policy if the contracts harm the interests of the public or violate a public statute, or otherwise are contrary to the interests of society.
Public stock offering
An offering of stock for sale to the investment public.
Published reserve
The minimum bid amount for a property to be auctioned, which is disclosed to all buyers.
Pulse gate control meter
An electric meter that converts the results of the analog electrical test to digital technology through the use of a fixed frequency oscillator, a variable interval gate, and a pulse counter.
Punch list
A list of deficiencies in construction compiled by the project manager or architect near the end of a job. The list should record all incomplete, missing, or substandard items and the action to be taken by the contractor to correct each problem.
Punching out
The process of creating a list of unfinished items and defects in tenant finish.
Punitive damages
(1) Damages usually assessed in cases where the conduct of the defendant has been adjudged to be so outrageous, excessive, and vicious that damages are awarded to punish the defendant and to warn others who might be thinking of emulating the defendant's actions in the future. (2) A monetary sum awarded to a plaintiff in situations where the defendant has acted in an outrageous or extremely egregious manner.
Purchase money loan
A loan that the borrower uses to purchase real property.
Purchase money mortgage
A mortgage given to secure a purchase money loan that is made to acquire the mortgaged property.
Purchasing power
The capacity to use money, either cash or borrowed, as a means to purchase goods.
Pure risks
Risks that are generally repeatable under similar circumstances, have only negative attributes, and present only a chance of loss and not of gain.
Purge
To remove volumes of groundwater from a monitoring well prior to sampling or to remove vapors from an underground storage tank.
Purlin
In roofs, a horizontal member supporting the common rafters; subpurlins may support purlins.
Putty
Any of a variety of pliable oil-base materials used to glaze window panes in sash frames, usually drying to a brittle, hard consistency.
Pyrophoric
A substance that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C or below).



Qualitative factors
Attributes that define the nature and character, but not the measurable effects, of a particular course of action.
Quality assessment
Includes evaluating the quality and effectiveness of facilities management services, benchmarking, managing governmental and corporate audits of facilities management services and projects, and developing innovative improvements in facilities management services.
Quality of an investment
An evaluation expressing the probability that the value of the investment will not suffer a sharp decline.
Quantitative factors
Attributes that define the measurable effects, but not the nature and character, of a particular course of action.
Quantitative measures
In cost-benefit analysis, factors that can be measured in terms such as dollars, square feet, or time.
Quarry tile
Hard unglazed tile made either by dry-press or extrusion method. The tiles are red, brown, and buff in color.
Quasi contracts
A remedy that is implied in law to avoid an injustice when neither an express nor implied contract exists.
Queries
Temporary searches for specific information.
Quitclaim deed
A deed that contains no covenants of title.



Rabbet
The channel or groove provided in a window sash to hold the pane in place.
Race statute
A type of recording statute that allows the first grantee who records to prevail over other grantees.
Race/notice-type statute
A type of recording statute under which the grantee, in order to prevail over a prior deed of the same property, must accept delivery of its deed without actual or constructive notice of the prior deed and must record its deed before the prior deed is recorded.
Raceways
Enclosed, accessible channels within systems furniture panels for communications, data, and power cabling. See also Cable Trays.
Racked-out
The removal of large circuit breakers from their panel to ensure that the circuit is deenergized.
RACM
Regulated asbestos-containing material. A term that defines when friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material is regulated under the 1990 EPA National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) revision.
RACT
Reasonable available control technology. The lowest emission limitation that a particular facility is capable of meeting by applying control technology that is reasonably available, considering technological and economic feasibility.
Radial distribution system
The most common electric distribution system. Power is received at the utility supply voltage level by a single, incoming substation. Through a series of step downs and splits, the power is converted for individual end-use equipment.
Radiation
The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves.
Radius restriction
A prohibition imposed by the landlord on a tenant to prevent him or her from opening an additional retail store within a prescribed distance from the shopping center location.
Radon
A naturally occurring chemical element in the form of an odorless, colorless, radioactive gas created by the disintegration of radium decaying beneath the earth's surface.
Rail
In a window assembly, a bar extending from one post or support to another; a structural member or support.
Raised flooring
See Access Flooring.
RAM
Random access memory. The part of a computer's memory used for most operations apparent to the user, such as word processing or spreadsheet software programs.
RAM disk
A technique for temporary data storage in memory using a portion of memory allocated as a virtual disk.
Ratable property
Personal or real property that is subject to taxation by local government.
Ratchet clause
A term used to describe the process by which a demand charge is assessed, based on actual levels for periods of time prior to the current billing period.
Rate adjustments
In leases, provisions for fixed-rate increases in the base (first year) rent usually influenced by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) set by the federal government.
Rate hedging
The purchase or sale of mortgage future contracts to offset cash market transactions to be made at a later date.
Rated softening capacity
Softener capacity rating is based on grains of hardness removed (as calcium carbonate) while producing soft water between successive regenerations and is related to pounds of salt required for each regeneration.
Rational method
A numerical equation used to determine the peak flow of a stormwater system.
Rationale
The reasons and justifications for a technology (or other) proposal.
Raw data
Data that has not been analyzed. See also Information and Knowledge.
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An EPA act that regulates the generation, transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste in addition to underground storage tanks.
Reactive maintenance
The act of maintaining equipment and facilities only when something breaks down or stops operating. See also Preventive Maintenance and Planned Replacement.
Reactive or unstable chemicals
Substances that, when under pressure, exposed to light, or subjected to friction or ignition, produce or release energy in the form of heat or an explosion; also substances that develop toxic or flammable vapors when mixed together or with water.
Reactive power
The power consumed in a purely inductive Alternating Current (AC) circuit; the current lags the voltage by 90°. Expressed in units of volt-amperes-reactive, abbreviated VARS.
Real estate
Includes the management of real estate assets and real estate portfolios, leasing, acquisition and disposition of properties, and due diligence.
Real estate function
The buying, selling, leasing, and management of a company's financial interests in real property to maximize its economic life, residual asset value, and effectiveness.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)
(1) A form of ownership in which typically smaller investors invest in shares of a trust that accumulates money and invests in real estate through mortgages, equity, or both. REITs can be publicly traded and are highly regulated. (2) A business entity that invests primarily in real estate or real estate mortgages and receives favorable income tax treatment under the Internal Revenue Code.
Real estate master plan
A plan that matches the company's real estate holdings to the company's real estate needs using the current business plan.
Real Estate Owned (REO) property
Property acquired by a lender through a trustee's sale (nonjudicial foreclosure), a judicial foreclosure, or a deed in lieu of foreclosure as a result of a borrower's default under the terms of the note and deed of trust.
Real interest rate
The annual percentage of purchasing power paid by a borrower to a lender for the use of money.
Real property
Land and improvements that are permanently attached to land, such as buildings, driveways, and sidewalks.
Real Property Administrator (RPA)
The most widely used designation in the asset and property management fields because of its application to overall management and administrative aspects of properties.
Real property management system
A Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) application that tracks data about buildings and land but not about who in the company is occupying them.
Rear-screen projection
Projecting an image from behind the projection surface, usually from within a projection room where the screen is mounted in a wall. See also Front-Screen Projection.
Reasonable care
The degree or level of care dictated by the particular circumstances.
Reasonable expectation
A court's opinion that coverage is provided, in spite of the fact that a careful and comprehensive review of the policy would show that the cause of loss was excluded because it could be reasonably expected by the policyholder.
Receiver
A person appointed by a court to take custody of a debtor's property for the purpose of preserving it and applying the property or its income to the claims of creditors.
Receiving stream
An existing water course/stream or drainage path.
Reciprocating compressor
A compressor that uses a piston to reduce refrigerant volume within a cylinder.
Recirculating hot water system
A type of service water heating distribution system that moves water from the heater to building fixtures and then back to the heater in a continuous loop. This system requires a circulation pump to ensure proper waterflow.
Reclaimed water systems
Systems developed for water conservation that deliver highly treated sewage effluent as irrigation water.
Reconciliation
The process of reviewing and analyzing the different estimates from the approaches to value.
Recordable cases
All work-related deaths and illnesses and those work-related injuries that involve loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment beyond first aid.
Recorded plat
A map of a specific land area that conforms to certain governmental requirements as to format and accuracy and locates individual parcels of land, or lots, by reference to larger parcels of land, known as blocks and subdivisions within a town.
Recording acts
Statutes enacted in every state that govern the conveyance of interests in real property and provide a system for recording such interests among public records.
Records
Subgroupings of data within files in database management programs. See also Fields.
Records management
Traditionally, the management of hard data in the form of paper or microfiche. Increasingly, the management of both hard and soft data.
Records management storage
Storage of records, usually remote from the primary work site, that will be accessed from time to time; less emphasis is placed on records preservation than on archival storage.
Recourse
The right to call upon a borrower to personally meet an obligation. Recourse is sometimes called personal guarantee.
Recourse loan
A loan for which the borrower has personal liability.
Rectifiers
Electrical devices used to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC); commonly classified as full-wave or half-wave rectifiers.
Recurring cost
A cost that occurs repeatedly during the life of an asset, such as for periodic cleaning, guard service, or preventive maintenance. Such costs are most closely associated with facilities operations.
Redevelopment Agency (RDA)
A publicly funded agency that helps property owners finance renovations to property affected by age, a poor location, or neighborhood considerations.
Redlining
A feature in some Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) systems that permits a user to electronically mark a drawing without editing the actual record drawing file.
Redundant power
An additional electrical power source that complements the primary source; may consist of a second generator or an entire duplicate electrical service (a second electric line, meter, and panel box) from the utility company. See also Clean Power, Continuous Power, Emergency Power, and Standby Power.
Refinance
Entering into a new mortgage loan transaction in order to pay off an existing mortgage loan covering the same real estate.
Refinancing
Modifying the existing terms of financing through change of amount, rate term, or loan covenant.
Reflectance
The ratio of light reflected from a surface to that which initially strikes it. Except for matt surfaces, reflectance depends upon how the surface is illuminated, the direction of the incident light, and the spectral distribution of the incident light. See also Footcandle.
Reflected ceiling plan
A construction drawing or architetural plan showing, in a reflected view, the ceiling treatment, ceiling grid, and placement of all new light fixtures as well as those to be removed and relocated. A light fixture legend and switch locations also are included.
Reflected light
Light redirected from an opaque object or surface. The amount of light reflected depends on the angle at which the light strikes the object, the smoothness of the surface, and the color of the surface.
Reflection
The property of light that is redirected from an object, allowing objects to be seen.
Reflector
The component of a light fixture that directs most of the light to the intended location.
Refrigerant
The fluid used for heat transfer by a heat pump; it absorbs heat at a low temperature and pressure and rejects heat at a higher temperature and pressure.
Regeneration
That part of the operating cycle of a water softener in which a sodium chloride solution is rinsed through the cation exchange bed to remove hardness ions and prepare it for a service run.
Regulation
A requirement established by a governmental agency and approved through legislative or administrative act, and having the effect of law.
Rehabilitation
The restoration of a property to satisfactory condition without changing the plan, form, or style of a structure.
Reinforced concrete
A combination of concrete and steel acting as a unit because of a bond between the two materials.
Reinsurance
The purchase of insurance by insurance companies.
Reinsurance company
An insurance company that agrees to assume portions of risks of another insurance company for a premium.
Relational
Used most often with database programs that link data from different files as opposed to linking data types within one file. See also Three-Dimensional Capability.
Release
A document that states the claimant agrees to accept payment return for closing out a claim.
Relocatable walls
See Demountable Walls.
Remanufacturers
Firms that acquire old furniture and dismantle, restore, recondition, warehouse, and sell it as remade.
Remedial action
A Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-defined response action categorized by a hazard ranking based on analyzing potential risks of a reported or confirmed release of a hazardous substance.
Remediate
Activities undertaken to reduce or eliminate contaminants so that property and groundwater are not in violation of applicable environmental standards.
Remediation
The physical process of reducing contamination.
Remodeling
Changing the plan, form, or style of a structure to correct functional or economic deficiencies.
Remote telecenters
Office centers providing technology and administrative support, located near customers and staffed by employees dedicated to that site or splitting their time between that location and another.
Remote-teaming computing
Electronically linking team members at several sites to work concurrently on a single computer file.
Removal action
A Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-defined, short-term response action that deals mainly with hazardous substance releases that present an "imminent and substantial danger" to public health or welfare.
Rent
(1) Payments for the services of land and its improvements. (2) The payment by the tenant to the landlord to occupy the leased premises.
Rent commencement date
The date on which the tenant is obligated to begin paying rent in accordance with the terms of the lease.
Rent roll
(1) A condensed statement of the actual lease agreement that lists the fundamentals of each lease, such as square footage, rent, expiration date, rental adjustment dates, and expansion/contraction/cancellation rights. (2) A list of all leases of property that also specifies the amount of rent and certain other information about each lease.
Rental reimbursement
Reimbursement for rental car use when the insured vehicle has been damaged.
Repeat violation
An OSHA infraction indicating that a compliance officer has noted the same violation at the same place of employment within the past three years.
Replacement
When discussing lead hazards, an abatement strategy in which components such as windows, doors, and trim with lead-painted surfaces are removed, and new lead-paint-free components are installed.
Replacement cost
The cost of construction, at current prices, of a building having utility equivalent to the building being appraised but built with modern materials and according to current standards, design, and layout. It is commonly used in the cost approach to value in an appraisal.
Reportable quantity
Under U.S. environmental law, the minimum quantity of environmentally hazardous material whose disposal or leakage must be reported by the owner or user of the material.
Reporting line
In an organization, the chain of all supervisors, from an employee's immediate supervisor to the most senior officer of a company.
Representative sample
A sample of a universe or whole (e.g., waste sample pile or groundwater) that can be expected to exhibit the average properties of the universe or whole.
Reproduction cost
The cost of construction, at current prices, of an exact duplicate, or replica, using the same materials, construction standards, design, layout, and quality of workmanship, and embodying all of the deficiencies, superadequacies, and obsolescence of the subject building. Similar to the replacement cost, this cost is also commonly used in the cost approach to value in an appraisal.
Request For Proposal (RFP)
A document in the form of a formal written request prepared by a prospective tenant (or the prospective tenant's representative on behalf of the tenant) for information regarding the lease and the building. Also, format used by some institutions to dictate what information they want from prospective management companies.
RES IPSA loquitur
A rule of evidence that equates to a plaintiff arguing that since the plaintiff could not have caused the injury, and since the thing causing the injury is solely in the hands of the defendant, the defendant should prove that he or she was not liable rather than the plaintiff having to prove that the defendant is liable.
Rescission
Cancellation of a contract.
Resellers
Telecommunications companies that sign up with long-distance carriers for volume discount plans and then pass those savings on to small companies; also, furniture brokers who purchase existing lots of furniture and sell it as is without any warranty.
Reservation of rights letter
A letter stating that the insurer may be investigating and even defending the claim initially, but that it reserves the right to deny the claim at a later date if it is determined that no coverage applies to the loss in question.
Reserve account
An accounting entry found on income and expense statements that shows the monthly cost or "reserve" that a property must realize in order for it to have adequate funds to replace or repair substantial items at a property, such as the roof and floor coverings.
Reserve amount
The minimum bid amount required by the seller.
Reserve requirements or reserves
A percentage of bank deposits placed with the Federal Reserve Bank to assure commercial bank liquidity.
Resident agent
The person who is authorized to accept service of process in a particular state on behalf of a legal entity so that the legal entity can be sued in such state.
Residual technique
A technique used to evaluate the income stream produced by a parcel of land and the improvements on it as separate entities.
Residual value
The value of an investment at the end of the holding period. Also known as terminal value.
Resilient flooring
Various smooth floor coverings that are similar in respect to their manufacture, installation, and general physical characteristics. Examples are linoleum, rubber, cork, asphalt, and a group derived from vinyl chloride resins. Resilience is a measure of the ability to recover or return to its original shape after an external load has been removed.
Resin
The term used to designate a synthetic, organic, ion exchange material (such as high capacity cation exchange resin) widely used in household water softeners.
Resistance
A characteristic of electricity measured in ohms and symbolized by "R." All material resists the flow of electrons. Conductors such as copper have low resistance. Insulators such as glass have high resistance.
Resistor
A device that limits or opposes the amount of current that can pass through the circuit based on the Electromotive Force (emf) applied.
Resolution
The degree of fineness of the image produced by an output device, usually measured in dots per inch (dpi) for printers or pixels (points of light) for monitor screens. The higher the resolution, the greater the precision and sharpness.
Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC)
The agency established by Congress to oversee the management and disposition of failed savings and loans and their assets.
Resource Conservation And Recovery ACT (RCRA)
(1) Legislation that governs the handling of solid and hazardous waste in the United States. Known as a cradle-to-grave regulation because it imposes technical requirements for the handling, packaging, transporting, treatment, and disposal of solid and hazardous waste from the origin of the waste until the disposal. (2) The primary federal statute under which the transport, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous wastes are regulated.
Respondeat superior
(1) Legal principle that states the defendant can be liable as a "principal" for the acts of another who is acting as an "agent" for that principal. (2) A legal doctrine under which an employer can be held legally responsible for his or her employees' torts committed within the scope of their employment.
Restitution
A remedy that attempts to restore the parties to the same status they had before the contract was formed or to compensate the injured party for the value of the benefit bestowed on the other party to the contract.
Restriction of work or motion
An action that occurs when an employee, because of a job-related injury or illness, is physically or mentally unable to perform all or any part of his or her normal assignment during all or any part of the workday or shift.
Restrictive endorsement
An endorsement that is conditional and affects the negotiability of the check or other instrument.
Restrike time
The time required between turn-off and immediate turn-on for most high intensity discharge lamps to achieve full brightness. The restrike time enables the lamp to cool and operate safely.
Restructure
The modification or change of the terms and conditions of a loan to meet altered market conditions.
Retention
Process by which a portion of a property or liability loss is absorbed by the business, typically in the form of a deductible, rather than being transferred to others, such as an insurance company.
Retrofit
Renovation of an existing space, building, or system, usually to update outmoded features to current standards of usability and code compliance.
Retrospective rating
A rating plan by which a business determines its own rates or ultimate premiums to a certain extent, based on the actual losses the business sustains during the policy period.
Return air
Air pulled from a space and returned to the central air-conditioning plant for reconditioning.
Return frequency
How often a storm is expected to return; for example, a ten-year storm is expected to occur only every ten years. Used in designing a stormwater system.
Return premium
The money owed to the policyholder because of a change in or cancellation of an insurance policy.
Revenue obligation securities
Money issued for projects intended to create an income stream from which the securities will be redeemed and interest will be paid. They are not guaranteed by the issuer.
Reverse polish notation logic
A strict, sequentially-based, mathematical logic system in which the operator is assigned after entering the numeric value.
Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (RULPA)
A model limited partnership statute that has been adopted by all states except Louisiana.
RICO
Racketeering, Influenced and Corrupted Organizations Act. A broad federal remedial criminal act designed to help prosecutors prosecute conspiracies.
Right
A short-term opportunity to purchase stock in a company for a specific price.
Rigid metal conduit
Once of the most common types of conduit used in industrial applications; closely resembles standard steel water pipe.
Rigid pavement
Reinforced concrete slab on grade.
Rinse
That part of the regeneration cycle of a water softener where fresh water is introduced to remove spent regenerant and excess salt prior to placing the softener into service.
Risc
Reduced instruction set computing. A type of computer chip design that uses programming language with shorter commands to process instructions more rapidly.
Rise
The vertical distance an elevator travels.
Riser
(1)The upright part of a step situated at the back of a lower tread near the leading edge of the next higher tread. (2) Vertical, primary cabling used to transmit data from one major section of a building to another; may also be run horizontally. (3) Primary supply lines for water and electricity.
Risk
The potential for injury or loss.
Risk control mechanism
Means of controlling loss exposures by reducing losses and increasing their predictability.
Risk financing mechanism
Means of paying for losses that occur.
Risk management
A systematic five-step process to identify, measure, and protect against the possibility of accidental damage, known as loss exposure, confronting us or our owned or managed properties.
Risk retention
See RETENTION.
Risk transfer
A process that causes property or personnel risks to be shifted from one party (the transferor) to another party (the transferee).
Rms (root mean square) values
The equivalent Alternating Current (AC) values (of effective values) used in calculations for AC circuits.
Roa
Return on Assets. The net profit after taxes divided by the total value of assets employed to generate income. This calculation does not consider interest paid to creditors and therefore works best for owned assets with no financing.
Roe
Return on Equity. The net profit after taxes divided by the net worth, yielding the total percentage of equity gained through an investment. This method shows the earning power of the shareholders' book investment and is frequently used to compare overall corporate performance when an investor is considering which stock to buy.
Roi
Return on Investment. The total profit divided by the total amount originally invested to gain a profit. This method gauges performance of an investment based on total money invested, including both direct capital contributions and borrowed funds.
Roll roofing
Coated roofing felts, either smooth or mineral-surfaced, supplied in a roll.
Roll-over
The reinvestment of funds in substantially the same investment when an obligation matures. The act of reinvesting in a similar investment or renewing a loan for an additional period of time.
Roll-up report
A report including all aspects of tenant property; such as monthly rent, lease term, security deposit, and any outstanding delinquent amounts.
ROM
Read-only memory. The part of a computer's memory that holds the most basic operating programs and commands; cannot be accessed or changed by ordinary programs.
Roofer
A roofing contractor.
Roofing system
An assembly of interacting roof structures and components designed to be weatherproof and normally used to insulate the building's top surface.
Rotor
The rotating component (armature) in an alternator that provides a rotating magnetic field. Also, the rotating core of an Alternating Current (AC) motor.
Router
An electronic connection between two or more networks that do not operate with the same line protocols.
Routine cleaning
Cleaning tasks performed regularly in occupied areas and common areas.
Run time
The actual number of hours that a piece of equipment operates (e.g., an HVAC system chiller).
Russell-ncreif property index
Stands for the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries and is highly regarded by the institutional investment community. It measures the historical performance of income-producing properties owned by commingled funds on behalf of qualified pension and profit-sharing trusts.
R-value
The ability of a material or system of materials to resist thermal transmission. The higher the R-value, the greater the resistance. See also Thermal Conductivity.



S corporation
A corporation that, by filing an election with the Internal Revenue Service, is not subject to federal corporate income tax.
Sacrificial anode
A zinc-rich primer in which the zinc in the paint corrodes instead of the iron or steel surface to which it is applied.
Saddle
A bend used when conduit must cross a small obstacle such as a pipe or other conduit; three or four bends of approximately 30° to 45° each are required.
Safety of principal
The likelihood that the original money paid for a particular investment will be returned to the investor. One motivation for an investor of real estate, which is based upon the desire not to lose the equity invested in a project. It is a defensive strategy.
Sagging
A paint defect that occurs when paint is applied too heavily to a vertical surface.
Sale-leaseback
A combination ownership-lease development method in which a company develops and completes a project and then sells it to a third party, usually a developer or property manager. The developer then executes a lease with the same company that it purchased the building from. The company, now the developer's tenant, rents and occupies the facility for the lease term.
Sally port
An armed fortification used by security personnel in very high security facilities.
Salt
High purity sodium chloride of a granular, rock, or briquette type used for regenerating a water softener.
Salvage program
A loss control method that attempts to minimize the amount of loss after it has occurred.
Sand filter packing
A sand layer between the outside wall of the monitoring well casing and the earth boring, in the area of the well screen, to allow access of groundwater or soil gas.
Sandy soil
Soil composed of large particles that are rounded rather than flattened.
Sanitary wastewater
All flows generated from a building or facility that result from the use of water; includes gray water and black water, but excludes process wastewater.
SARA
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. A U.S. federal law that added tougher cleanup requirements to the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and increased the funds available in Superfund.
SARA Title III
Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, synonymous with the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Lists 189 hazardous air pollutants for which the EPA must establish special standards for source categories of polluters.
Sash
The framework in which panes of glass are set in a window or door.
Satellite office
An office used by a company for employees who telecommute. It allows employees to reduce commutes by working at an office close to home for a few days a week.
Saturated felt
A roofing felt impregnated with bitumen having a low softening point, from 100°F to 160°F (38.1°C to 71.7°C).
Saturation point
The amount of a certain mineral that water can hold in solution at a given temperature and pressure.
Savings account
An interest-bearing account from which funds can be withdrawn after a waiting period of thirty days or less.
SBS
Sick building syndrome. Describes situations in which building occupants experience acute health and/or comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a particular building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified.
Scale
(1) The proportion that describes a representation of an object in relation to the object itself, e.g., a drawing on a scale of one-quarter inch to one foot. (2) Fouling or lining on interior surfaces of heat transfer and water storage equipment caused by water deposits. The rate of scale formation is affected by water temperature, flow rate, and water hardness.
Scanner
An input device that electronically reads an image as a series of thousands of small dots, each with a light value (and possibly a set of color values) and converts the image to digital data (1s and 0s).
Scarcity
The present or anticipated undersupply of an item relative to the demand for it.
Scenario
In strategic planning, a possible outcome based on a series of assumptions and variables.
Schedule of underlying insurance
The names of the insurance companies providing the underlying insurance under the umbrella, along with the promised limits and types of insurance.
Schedule rating
A means by which the underwriter can apply debits or credits to class rates in order to more accurately develop the premium appropriate to a certain risk.
Scheduling
The starting and stopping of building equipment based on the time of day or day of the week.
Schematic plans
Drawings to scale that show all basic design features of a space or building but no construction details or dimensions.
Schemes
In software, groups of information organized by specific parameters, such as information that describes a project's status.
Scientific management approach
A management technique that finds the best way to do each task and measures the cumulative effect of these improvements on increasing productivity. Efficiency studies are aimed at maximizing speed, accuracy, and quantity.
SCIF
Secured compartmented information facilities. See also Cold Sites and Hot Sites.
Scope
The extent, in contractual terms, of the time period, cost, and space required to perform a construction project.
Screeding
The process of fine-leveling a newly poured concrete floor to produce a smooth, flat finish.
Screen
(1) A freestanding panel that does not interlock with or generally support any other furniture components. (2) Usually an exterior covering over a window, the purpose being to reduce solar gain, protect against the entry of foreign matter or insects, or to protect window glass from such elements as hail and windstorm. (3) To use special equipment to detect possible contamination in the field prior to laboratory analysis.
Scupper
An opening cut through the wall of a building through which water can drain from a floor or roof.
Seal
A flashing strip made of bituminous materials, or rubber such as Hypalon or neoprene, and applied at the juncture of two elements.
Sealant
A resilient material used to prevent infiltration of air or water through curtain wall and window joints. Also called caulking.
Sealer
A material used to protect a floor surface for a longer period of time than a floor finish.
Seamless
Pertaining to software programs. The condition of having interfaces between programs to minimize differences between them and to facilitate the exchange of data and commands.
Secondary cells
Batteries that can be recharged, such as lead-acid or nickel-cadmium.
Secondary colors
Colors made by mixing two or more primary colors.
Secondary containment
In the case of an Underground Storage Tank (UST), the erection of a physical barrier completely around the primary product-containing underground storage tank. The containment may consist of a second tank wall, a vault, or a liner.
Secondary glazing
The addition of another pane of glass or window unit to convert single glazing to double glazing in order to reduce heat transfer.
Secondary loads
Loads that can be turned-off during peak demand periods and rescheduled to operate during off-peak demand periods.
Secondary market
The sale or resale of securities or other investments in the public marketplace. Secondary sales do not include initial purchases of the securities from the issuing authority (the primary market).
Section
A method of drawing an object as if it were cut at a given point to show materials and surfaces beyond that point.
Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC)
A federal agency that administers and enforces federal securities laws.
Securitization
The process whereby financial markets convert real estate into a security that can be readily traded by investors.
Securitization of real estate
The creation of ownership interests in real estate that are evidenced by an instrument that may be publicly traded in the capital markets.
Security agreement
A loan document that grants a security interest to the lender in personal property and fixtures in order to secure repayment of debt.
Security interest
A legally recognized interest in personal property or fixtures that secures the payment or performance of an obligation.
Sedimentation pond
A manmade pond that allows contaminants in collected stormwater runoff to settle out in a controlled area before water is discharged, to reduce contamination of waterways and streams.
Sediments
The smallest soil particles.
Segregated fund
A fund with only one investor and usually established for pension funds or other large investors who do not want their assets commingled with those of other investors. Values of the portfolios are usually worth at least $50 million dollars.
Seismic load
The stresses placed on a structural system by an earthquake.
Self-directed teams
A style of management in which a group is given authority and responsibility for a high degree of self-direction. Team members are versatile, have a wide range of skills, and perform their work relying heavily on collaboration with other team members.
Self-insurance
A separate fund, properly calculated on a sound actuarial basis, set up by a business to pay for its own estimated losses.
Self-storing combination storm and screen
A combination of sash and screen panels that can be moved in their frame to provide either thermal protection or ventilation by "storing" the panels in an appropriate position.
Seller's market
A real estate market where buyers outnumber sellers.
Selling agent
Any agent, other than the listing agent, who writes the offer that is presented to the seller.
Selvage joint
In roofing, a lapped joint detail for mineral-surfaced cap sheets, in which mineral surfacing is omitted over the transverse dimension of over-lapping sheets to get better adhesion with bituminous mopping between adjacent lapped cap sheet surfaces.
Semi-direct lighting system
A system of which 60 percent to 90 percent of the light from a luminaire shines down toward the working surface.
Sensible heat
Heat that when added to or removed from a particular substance results in a change in temperature but not a change of state.
Sensitization
The development of an adverse, allergy-like response to contaminant exposure.
Sensor
A device that mechanically, electrically, or electronically detects atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity, lighting levels, or smoke.
Separate property
Property that is owned prior to the marriage or that is received after the marriage in the form of gift or inheritance.
Separation
Dividing the loss exposure into parts to decrease the severity of loss.
Separator
A collection chamber for stormwater that discharges the water after oil contaminants have separated from it.
Series circuit
A circuit in which the current passing through any one resistor is the same as the current passing through the other resistors. Current has only one parth to follow.
Series motor or universal motor
A small motor that runs on Alternating Current (AC) or Direct Current (DC).
Serious violation
An OSHA infraction associated with a hazard that could cause death or serious physical harm but for which a complete disregard for the safety and health of the individual(s) affected is not apparent.
Servant
A person employed to perform a service for the master, and whose conduct in performance of the service is controlled by the master.
Service connection
The service drop, entrance conductors, and entrance equipment.
Service delivery
The process of organizing and accomplishing facilities work that meets a customer's stated needs.
Service drop
The overhead conductors that transfer electric power from the last utility company pole to the point of connection within a building.
Service elevators
Elevators used by maintenance and repair personnel and for moving light materials.
Service entrance
The electrical components between the service drop or lateral and the building's main disconnect.
Service evaluation
The overall evaluation of facilities management services in terms of customer service (effectiveness, efficiency, and responsiveness), financial performance, benchmarking, technical performance, space utilization, and overall business performance.
Service factor
A rating of the amount of horsepower above the stated horsepower that a motor can safely deliver.
Service income
Miscellaneous income.
Service industry environmental insurance
Coverage for third-party bodily injury, property damages, or cleanup costs arising out of the insured's contracting or consulting operations and caused by pollution conditions.
Service lateral
Conductors to a building that are routed underground.
Service maintenance
Maintenance that meets manufacturer's basic recommendations and requires a minimum level of skill.
Service of process
The procedure whereby a summons and copy of a complaint are served upon a defendant in a civil action.
Service order
A request by a facilities customer for either building services or project services. See also Building Services and Project Work.
Service run
That part of the operating cycle of a water softener in which hard water supply is passed through a regenerated and rinsed bed of ion exchange material, thereby producing soft water.
Service standard
A standard for the performance of facilities services, such as response times to service calls, operating temperatures, or specifications for cleanliness or the frequency of trash removal.
Service transformers
Transformers that step down utility-supplied voltages to voltages that can be used in buildings.
Service water heating
Building hot water used for applications other than space heating.
Settlement statement
An accounting of the receipt and disbursement of funds exchanged at closing.
Severity
The measure of the total dollars, present or future, that can be lost by the occurence of an adverse event.
Shade
The color produced by adding black to a hue.
Shaded-pole motor
An Alternating Current (AC) induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor and a special stator pole for starting torque.
Shared space
Two or more employees sharing a single, assigned workspace and work tools, either simultaneously or on different shifts.
Shared tenant services
Services provided by a building to allow tenants to share the costs and benefits of sophisticated telecommunications and other technical services.
Shareholder value
The monetary value of a company's stock.
Shares of beneficial interest
The equivalent of common stock; issued by real estate investment trusts.
Shear load
Stress resulting from applied forces that cause two touching parts of the building to slide in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.
Sheridan-karkow formula
A method to determine the pricing of space on any floor of an office building according to its desirability.
Shingling
In roofing, a pattern formed by laying parallel felt rolls with lapped joints so that one longitudinal edge underlaps the other adjacent felt. See also Ply.
Shock load
A load that is suddenly applied, as when equipment cycles on and off or equipment or material is dropped.
Shop drawings
Drawings and submittals from contractors that communicate the contractor's intent to supply products, as well as how they will be fabricated and, in many cases, installed.
Short
An electrical condition that occurs when a problem in the circuit (a fault) allows the current to bypass the design load or device. The result is a low-resistance circuit with a correspondingly high current.
Short-term
A time horizon of one year or less.
Short-term cancellation penalty
Financial penalty that can be assessed against a policyholder when the policyholder cancels the policy before its normal expiration date. The penalty is usually 10 percent of the normal return premium.
Short-term disability insurance
Disability insurance to cover the loss of income suffered by a disabled employee for a short period of time, usually not more than one year.
Short-term policy
A policy written for a shorter time period than is normally the case.
Shrinkage
Income that disappears or is unaccounted for.
Shunt capacitor
Shunt capacitors are used to supply capacitive power, measured in Volts-Amp Reactive (VAR), to the system at the points where they are connected. They supply reactive power to counteract the out-of-phase component of current required by an inductive load. They are either energized continuously or switched on or off during load cycles.
Shunt motor
The most common type of Direct Current (DC) motor with the field windings and the armature connected in parallel.
Shunt-type ammeter
An amp meter that must be connected in series in the circuit so the full current flow passes through the meter.
Shutter
Usually an opaque covering for a window, on the exterior or interior, used to block the view, to exclude sunlight, or to provide physical security.
Sick pay
A voluntary uninsured payment by the employer to the employee when the employee is unable to work because of an injury or accident.
Signaling speed
The speed at which data is transmitted through a computer's ports to an output device such as a printer. See also Throughput Time.
Signature tenant
The tenant by which the market identifies the building and its desirability; also called the anchor or cornerstone tenant.
Siliceous gel
A manufactured, granular, hydrated, sodium alumino silicate often called synthetic gel zeolite used in water softeners.
Sill
The horizontal member that forms the base of a window. Also, the threshold of a door.
Sill plate
In general construction, the lowest member of the frame of the structure, resting on the foundation and supporting the building frame.
Simm chips
Memory chips used to store RAM; used commonly in computers and peripheral devices such as printers.
Single-asset corporation
A corporation that is established for the purchase of real property where the assets of the corporation are limited to the property being purchased.
Single-duct/single-zone
A type of air circulatory system in which a single air handling unit supplies a single location. This type of system is typically used in small buildings.
Single-leaf door
A single door in a frame (as opposed to a double-leaf, French door, which includes two doors in one door frame).
Single-line diagrams
Drawings that use standard symbols to represent each component and provide more information about an electrical circuit than a block diagram does.
Single-net lease
A lease in which the lessor is exposed to greater financial risk if operating costs increase during the lease term. The tenant pays for all items included in a double-net lease except taxes.
Single-phase current
Alternating current from a generator producing a single sine wave.
Single-phase motors
Low-capacity drive motors, those below 1 hp, running on single-phase power, often referred to as fractional horsepower motors.
Single-service providers
Local, national, or international service providers that typically offer a limited range of facilities services, such as housekeeping, architectural and design services, or project management, although they may also provide related services.
Sir
Savings-to-investment-ratio. A comparison of an item or proposal's projected cost savings to the initial investment in it.
Site assessment
A limited, multiphase environmental investigation focusing on identifying whether a subject property is contaminated from past and current uses.
Situational analysis
Capturing information about each external element that can have a significant influence, negative or positive, on the facilities department in the coming year.
Sketch system
A Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system that produces unstructured line drawings or simple collections of objects from which information cannot be extracted; no intelligence or meaning is attached to objects. Data is stored as the pattern of lines and dots that constitute the images. See also Drafting Systems.
Skin designations
From the Occupational Saftey and Health Standards Z-tables, a substance that can be absorbed through the skin.
Skip cleaning
Vacuuming carpeting in low-traffic areas on a schedule less frequent than daily.
Slab-to-slab
Extending from the finished surface of one (concrete) floor to the underside of the floor on the next floor above; used in reference to partitions that penetrate a ceiling grid rather than stop at the height of a suspended ceiling.
Slag
(1) Fouling or lining on interior surfaces of vessels in contact with the hot gases from combustion. (2) Grayish, porous cinder material left as the residue from blast furnaces and used as a surfacing component.
Slander
(1) A spoken offense concerning another, which that party considers to be injurious to his or her reputation, good name, or character. (2) A defamatory statement that is spoken.
Slip
The difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor; is expressed as a percentage of the synchronous speed.
Slippage
In roofing, the relative lateral movement of adjacent felt plies in built-up membranes which occurs mainly in sloped roofing membranes, sometimes exposing lower plies, or even the base sheet, to weather.
Slope
The tangent of the angle between an inclined roof surface and the horizontal, measured in inches per foot (centimeters per meter). The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers' Association ranks slopes as follows:
Small Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC)
An agency of the United States federal government that insures individuals' brokerage accounts up to $500,000.
Small-quantity generator
A facility that produces more than 100 kilograms but less than 1,000 kilograms of waste per month.
Smooth-surfaced roof
A roof covered with a surface layer of hot-mopped asphalt or cold-applied asphalt-clay emulsion or asphalt cutback, or sometimes with unmopped, inorganic felt.
Soft costs and benefits
Costs and benefits related to the management of construction, leasing, and maintenance and upkeep, such as overhead, fees, and management time.
Soft data
Data stored electronically on hard disks, floppy disks, tape, or other electronic media.
Soft insurance market
An insurance market characterized by ease of obtaining coverage and by low premiums.
Soft market
A market in which demand for properties and leased space is weak.
Soft water
Water containing less than 1 gpg of dissolved calcium and magnesium salts as calcium carbonate equivalent.
Softening point
In roofing, the index of bitumen fluidity. An asphalt softening point is measured by the "ring-and-ball" test (ASTM D2398). The coal-tar pitch softening point is measured by the "cube-in-water" test (ASTM D61).
Software applications
Computer programs written for specific types of work, such as word processing, spreadsheets, and graphic design. Also called software programs.
Softwood Wood
from conifers (trees that have needles rather than leaves and that bear their seeds in cones). Not necessarily an indication of the relative softness of that particular wood.
Soil
A mixture of mineral particles combined with living and dead organic matter, air, and moisture.
Soil boring
The physical means of drilling through the earth to collect samples or to erec
14 Dec 2009
16:09:28
Braun

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