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Startseite - Facility Management Forum - Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
 

Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 6

Soil boring
The physical means of drilling through the earth to collect samples or to erect monitoring equipment.
Soil gases
Gases (e.g., radon, volatile organic compounds, pesticides) that enter a building from the surrounding ground.
Soil strength
The quality of soil, based on the ability of the soil composition to support a foundation.
Soils report
A useful resource material that indicates composition of soils, shape of the land, and topography.
Solar chimney
A design technique using the radiant energy from sunlight radiated through a skylight to heat air and induce it to rise.
Solar collector
A device designed to capture solar energy by heating water, air, or another heat-transfer fluid.
Sole proprietorship
A form of ownership in which an individual is solely responsible for the success or failure of a business.
Sole source
In procurement, only one source is approached. Corporate officers (COs) consider this method a last resort, because the customer usually gives up all negotiating advantage.
Sole-source procurement
A procurement awarded to a single vendor without competition.
Solid mopping
In roofing, continuous mopping surface with no unmopped areas.
Solid waste
Any discarded (e.g., abandoned, disposed of, recycled) material. Includes hazardous as well as nonhazardous waste.
Solid wire
A conductor made of a single strand of wire.
Solvent
The volatile substance in paint that dissolves or disperses the binder, then evaporates after the paint is applied.
Solvent-type paint
A paint in which the binder is dissolved in solvent.
Sound masking
The use of solid-state sound generators to produce a continuous, broadband, random-sound signal that masks other sounds, especially in the treble frequency range, making some human speech unintelligible.
Source selection
In this type of contracting, a vendor is selected by competitive negotiation. The drawback to this method is limited ultimate control of price.
Space allocation
The practice of assigning space to company departments on the basis of either functional need or rank. See also Space Standard.
Space delivery
The process of outfitting a defined block of space to be occupied primarily by a particular tenant or occupant. That is, identifying needs, planning a strategy, acquiring space, designing and building space, and move-in and occupancy.
Space demand reset
A control that uses the temperature of the conditioned space to adjust the temperature of the air being supplied to heat or cool that space.
Space management
In Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) systems, a database application that imports square footage numbers from the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system (e.g., departmental space assignments), houses them in a database, and produces alphanumeric reports, such as departmental space allocations and analyses of space utilization efficiency.
Space planning
A process that captures supply and demand data, prepares space allocation plans, and implements the plans.
Space programming
The process of defining the functional needs of building occupants and translating them into physical requirements for space, furnishings, and equipment.
Space standard
A company policy that defines the amount of space, degree of enclosure, type and specific pieces of furniture, finishes, electrical support, lighting, and acoustical control normally provided to a particular type of worker or job. Also referred to as a space guideline.
Space/furniture plan
A plan that shows where walls and furniture will go. Locations and sizes of all workspaces, as well as furniture standards, should be agreed on before this plan is approved.
Spalling
A defect that occurs when pieces of masonry or brick split or flake off a wall surface.
Span of control
The extent of functions overseen by an individual manager; the number of people supervised directly by a manager.
Spandrel
Usually the ornamented surface covering of space between the upper and lower floors of multistory structures and right and left exterior curve of an arch and an enclosing right angle.
Spare
An unused port in a telecommunications system.
Spatial designation
In software, similar to an attribute but instead refers to a specific geographical or spatial location, such as room boundaries, equipment locations, and HVAC ductwork.
SPCC
Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure. A plan required of facilities that store oil, which could reasonably be expected to be discharged in harmful quantities to navigable waterways.
Special agent
An agent who is engaged by a principal for a particular purpose under limited and circumscribed powers.
Special agent
One who is engaged by a principal for a particular purpose under limited and circumscribed powers.
Special damages
Damages awarded for losses that can be specifically itemized and measured, such as medical bills, lost wages, property repair costs, etc.
Special form
Property form in which all causes of loss are covered unless specifically excluded or limited in the policy.
Special space
Space built to standards that exceed those for office-type space; used for facilities such as laboratories, exercise rooms, and cafeterias.
Special warranty deed
A deed that limits the scope of covenants of title to title defects caused or created by the grantor personally.
Specialty company
Insurer that specializes in one basic area of insurance.
Specialty investment
Applies to niche-markets, which may include: mobile-home parks, mini-warehouses, triple-net leases with restaurants, etc.
Special-use property
A property that has only one highest and best use because of some special design, i.e., an airport or hospital.
Specific heat
The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body one degree to that required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of water one degree.
Specific insurance
Property insurance with a specified limit of coverage for property at each location covered by the policy.
Specific performance
The court's order to specifically do something.
Specific rate
Insurance rate that applies to a single, particular risk.
Specific stop-loss insurance
Insurance typically purchased by self-insured companies to cover the loss amount that exceeds the predetermined maximum individual claim amount.
Specified peril form
Property form in which the causes of loss are enumerated in the coverage form and all other causes of loss are not covered.
Spectrum XRF Analyzer
An instrument that provides the operator with a complete radiation spectrum, which improves the accuracy of the measurement of lead.
Specular reflection
Reflection without diffusion, in accordance with the laws of optical reflection.
Speculative development
The construction of a building without commitment from a user, but with the belief that demand exists for the space and that the space will be rented within a reasonable time after the building is completed.
Speculative risk
A risk that may or may not be repeatable under similar circumstances and that has positive and negative attributes and a chance of either loss or gain.
Speech privacy
Rendering human speech unintelligible by making high-frequency consonant sounds with background/ambient noise. See also White Noise.
Spill and overfill protection
Prevents the product being pumped into a storage tank from being released to the environment at the conclusion of filling operations.
Split
A membrane tear resulting from tensile stress.
Split samples
Duplicate, homogeneous portions (aliquots) of the same sample, which can be analyzed separately to compare results for quality control/quality assurance.
Split-phase motor
A single-phase motor equipped with two stator windings — the main field winding and an auxiliary or starting winding.
Sporicide
A disinfectant that kills spores. Spores are reproductive cells encased in shells which make them hard to destroy.
Spot mopping
In roofing, a mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in roughly circular areas, generally about 18 in. (45.7 cm) in diameter, with a grid of unmopped, perpendicular bands.
Spot relamping
Replacing individual lamps when they burn out.
Spray buffing
A floor-care technique using a mixture of water and floor finish lightly sprayed on the floor and buffed with a special pad.
Spray cleaning
The application of disinfectant with a pressurized sprayer to all fixture, partition, wall, and floor areas in a rest room.
Spread
The difference between the interest paid to borrow money and the rate of interest received when the money is reloaned, or the difference between a security bid and asked price.
Spreadsheet software
A software application based on the manipulation and calculation of data contained in discrete cells of a grid; used extensively to process financial and numeric data.
Spread-spectrum radio system
The only truly wireless signal-transmission system developed thus far; transmits signals between 902 MHz and 928 MHz using network adapter cards housing multiple antennas, installed at each Personal Computer (PC).
Sprinkle mopping
In roofing, a random pattern of dropping heated bitumen beads onto the substrate from a broom or mop.
Square
A roof area of 100 ft2 (9.29 m2).
Squeegee
A rubber-bladed tool with a handle, used for moving water on a floor by wiping action.
Squirrel-cage motor
An induction motor in which the conductors cast in the motor rotor resemble a running wheel for squirrels.
Stack
A boiler's exhaust pipe.
Stack effect
An air infiltration pattern in a building where air enters lower floors, rises within the building, and exits from upper floors, due to the natural rising of warmer air.
Stacking charts or plans
Charts showing multiple floors of the same building, the departments occupying space, and the spaces they occupy.
Staff function
A group or employee that serves a particular manager but does not have any direct authority over any groups or employees that the manager supervises. See also Line Authority.
Staging area
Space for uncrating, assembling, and temporarily storing tools, supplies, and equipment during a project.
Stain
A thin paint that gives color to wood without hiding the wood's surface.
Stand-alone
A computer not linked electronically or physically to any others.
Standard company
Insurer that issues policies for risks that have average or above-average loss exposures.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)
A statistical unit of a population area designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget. An SMSA must contain one city with a population of at least 50,000 and any contiguous area that is economically or socially associated with the city.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
Manual A document that establishes policies and procedures for a management company to use in operating a building.
Standby commitment
An agreement by a lender to make a loan in the future with the understanding that the loan will be made only if other committed financing becomes unavailable.
Standby power
Emergency electrical service dedicated to sustaining business operations as opposed to building operations. See also Emergency Power, Continuous Power, and Uninterruptible Power Supply.
Stare decisis
Legal principle stating that courts should follow the legal precedents set forth in their prior rulings and in the rulings of higher courts.
State set-rate filing method
The rate method that basically sets out what rates the state has determined the insurance companies operating in those states shall use.
Statement of values
A listing of the insurable property, loss of income, and extra expense values per insured location that is used to calculate a blanket insurance limit.
Static electricity
Electricity generated by friction.
Static Pressure (SP)
The static pressure of a fan is the total pressure diminished by the fan velocity pressure. It is measured in inches of water (Pa).
Station
A telephone handset, fax machine, videophone, or other communications device in a telecommunications system.
Statistical sample
A group of results or outcomes that are used to make comparisons.
Stator or stator core
The stationary windings in an alternator's main frame or the stationary windings of a motor.
Statute of frauds
Laws, in effect in most states, that require certain contracts for the sale of property to be in writing to be enforceable.
Statutes
Laws passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by the president into law, or by state legislatures and signed into law by their respective governors.
Statutes of limitations
Statutorily prescribed time periods in which a party must assert its legal rights by bringing legal action in the courts.
Statutory law
Law written by the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.
STC
Sound transmission class. A measure of how well a sound barrier prevents sound from passing through it.
Steam cleaner
A machine that consists of a steam generator, a gun or nozzle attached to the machine by a flexible hose, and a solution tank for the detergent. Used to clean heavy soils from equipment and floors.
Steam trap
A device that allows condensate (condensed water) from steam to flow into a holding tank, but which does not allow steam to flow through.
Steel beam
A steel horizontal member lighter than a girder, carrying less load, and supported at its ends by girders, walls, or columns.
Steel girder
A heavy steel horizontal member spanning columns or walls and serving as the support for beams and joists.
Stel
Short-term exposure limit. A maximum concentration of an airborne toxic material in the workplace that should not be exceeded in any fifteen-minute period.
Still images
Motionless images such as photos, slides, and flip charts.
Stock
Evidence of ownership of equitable rights in a company.
Stone aggregate
A mixture of sand, gravel, and crushed stone.
Stop-gap liability endorsement
Provides employers' liability coverage in monopolistic states. This endorsement only provides liability coverage, not workers' compensation benefits.
Storm window
A sash placed outside/inside an ordinary window as insulation and additional protection against severe weather.
Stormwater management
Collecting precipitation and routing it to areas that will not create a nuisance for an owner's or manager's facility, neighboring properties, or the environment.
Stovepiping
The practice of dividing (facilities) information into separate, incompatible systems purchased without regard for potential compatibility.
Stranded wire
Wire normally constructed of a number of thin strands woven together to form a single conductor, used when flexibility is required.
Strategic facilities planning
The process of developing strategies, options, scenarios, and contingencies to enable facilities to support corporate business objectives. See also Corporate Strategic Planning.
Strategic functions
Strategy-related facilities management activities that require a long time to develop, have long-term effects, and make a major impact (primarily financial) on the company.
Strategic plan
A plan that projects programs five to ten years for most business functions. Some strategic facility management plans project three to five years.
Straw man theory
A negotiating technique whereby you take an unimportant issue and make it seem important.
Strict liability
Liability without fault.
Strict or absolute liability
Liability without fault, when circumstances or activities that have generated an injury or harm are deemed so inherently dangerous that negligence does not have to be proved for there to be a judgment against the defendant. The plaintiff need only show that the defendant was involved in an inherently dangerous activity and the plaintiff was injured as a result of it.
Strip flooring
The most popular wood floor. Usually used in strips 25/32 in. (2.0 cm) thick and 2 1/4 in. (5.7 cm) wide. Most strip flooring is tongued, grooved, and end-matched for snugness. Square-edge strips are also available.
Strip mopping
In roofing, a mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in parallel bands, generally 8 in. (20.3 cm) wide with 4 in. (10.2 cm) unmopped spaces.
Stripping
(1) The technique of sealing a roofing joint between metal and a built-up membrane with one or two plies of felt or fabric and hot-or-cold-applied bitumen; (2) the technique of taping joints between insulation boards.
Strong room
A highly secure, temporary restraining area.
Structural steel types
Standard I beam: A beam shaped like an "I" and designated by nominal depth measured across both flanges and weight per foot (meter). Wide-flange (WF or H) shape: A beam shaped like an "H" with wider flanges than an I beam. A wide-flange section is almost square in cross section and is excellent for building columns. The flange has a slight taper. Channel: A flattened U-shaped section designated by depth and weight per foot (meter) used in building for such miscellaneous metal as stringers for steel stairways. Hollow structural shape: A section used for carrying both loads and utilities. Common shapes include square and round. Structural T (WT or ST): A section produced by shearing or flame-cutting one flange from standard beams or wide flange sections; may be hot-rolled. Angle: An L-shaped section designated by the length of both legs and the thickness of metal in the legs. Angles are used for miscellaneous metal in buildings such as lintels. Plate: A flat steel product that measures 3/16 in. (0.5 cm) or more
Structurally unusual space
Space with structural characteristics such as beam size and span, floor loading, and floor-to-floor height not typically found in office buildings.
Stucco
A type of plaster made with portland cement that is applied to exterior surfaces to form a finish coating.
Stud
Lumber used in wall construction as upright framing to which paneling, laths, or sheathing are fastened. Window openings may be structured by omitting or shortening studs.
Subchapter s corporation
A form of corporation that is administered for tax purposes in such a way that income is not subject to double taxation.
Subcontractor
(1) Refers to a specialist trade company usually under contract with a contractor. (2) Someone who does work for the insured, but who is not an employee of the insured and who has his or her own business and is not directly controlled by the insured.
Subfloor
An unfinished supporting floor, architecturally designed to carry a load. Wood and concrete are the principal materials used.
Subgrade
Existing soil or fill material that has been leveled and compacted.
Subject matter jurisdiction
The ability of a particular court to hear a case because it falls within the class of cases over which the court has authority.
Subject to
An offer to purchase that is "subject to" means that the offer is contingent upon certain stated conditions or contingencies being satisfied or removed. Typically, the earnest money as well as the requirement to close is unenforceable until the conditions and contingencies have been satisfied.
Sublease
A transfer by the tenant of its leasehold interest either for a shorter period than the entire remainder of the lease term or of less than the entire leased premises.
Sublease space
Space that is currently leased but not being utilized by the prime lessee. Normally put on the market at rates lower than the overall market value. The term of the sublease will run concurrently with that of the prime lease.
Subleasing
Leasing of space by a tenant to a subtenant, usually in accordance with most or all terms of the base lease. In most subleases, the tenant is still legally responsible for conformance to the lease contract.
Subleasing rights
Gives the tenant the right to sublease all or part of its space to someone else.
Submittal
A written recommendation to an ownership entity requesting specific approval for a major property event.
Subordination
A contractual arrangement in which a party with a claim to certain assets agrees to make his or her claim junior, or subordinate, to the claims of another party.
Subpanel
From the main circuit breakers, power is distributed to one or more subpanels. Each subpanel also has a number of breakers or fuses, which control the flow of current to the various branch circuits.
Subrogation
The right of an insurance company to take over the rights or "stand in the shoes" of an insured and then recover its loss from the party responsible for the loss.
Substation
A place where power is taken from the high voltage transmission line and reduced to lower voltages. House step-down transformers and switches are required for local distribution.
Substitution
The appraisal principle that states that when several similar or commensurate commodities, goods, or services are available, the one with the lowest price will attract the greatest demand and widest distribution.
Substrate
(1) A surface on which paint or varnish has been or may be applied. Examples include wood, concrete, plaster, metal, and drywall. (2) The surface upon which roofing membrane is placed. (3) A structural deck or insulation.
Substrate-effect lead
The returning of backscattered radiation from the paint, substrate, or underlying material to an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer. This radiation, when counted as lead X-rays by an XRF, contributes to substrate-effect lead or bias.
Subsurface sewage disposal system
An on-site sewage treatment system.
Suites
Collections of interrelated software applications in compatible formats, such as a word processor, spreadsheet, and graphics between which data can be exchanged relatively easily.
Sunk costs
Funds already invested in a project that cannot be recovered even if the project components are salvaged.
Super lien
A lien that is granted to the government. It has priority over all other liens that may be present on a property and provides that the government can be reimbursed for the cost of cleanup of environmental violations on a property.
Superfund
See Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).
Superfund, or cercla
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, a federal statute that imposes liability on a wide variety of potentially responsible parties for cleaning up hazardous substances released or posing a threat of release into the environment.
Superliens
Liens that are authorized by law to encumber contaminated properties (or other properties of the owner) in order to provide compensation for clean-up costs.
Super-saturation
A condition that occurs when the concentration of a mineral in water exceeds the amount of mineral that the water can hold in solution.
Supervening illegality
Contract performance is excused if performance becomes illegal after the parties have entered into a contract.
Supply
The quantities of a good that can be produced under constraints of capacity and price.
Support area
Includes computer centers, mail rooms, reprographics and copy center, library space, training rooms, communication centers, auditoriums, conference rooms, security areas and shipping and receiving area.
Support space
Space allocated to administrative support functions such as meetings, libraries, research, storage, and reception — space not assigned to one worker.
Supporting lines of insurance
The lines of insurance that might make it agreeable for the underwriter to write more marginal areas of insurance.
Surface
The skin or face of an object or building.
Surface water
Water that travels along the earth's surface prior to permeating or being collected by various physical means.
Surface-mounted wraparound fixtures
Lamp fixtures enclosed by plastic lenses on the bottom and the two long sides.
Surge protection
A mechanical means of protecting computer equipment from sudden, large fluctuations in voltage or current that might cause damage.
Survey
A map or drawing of property that shows the property's boundaries, measurements, contours, and area.
Suspended ceiling
Ceiling panels placed within a metal grid suspended below the overhead structural slab or from the structural elements of a building and not bearing on the walls.
Sweeping compounds
Mixtures of oily or waxy materials that attract and hold particles of dust and soil, with granular materials such as sawdust and sand to provide a carrier and surface for the oil or wax.
Sweetener
An additional monetary incentive to a lender to make the funding of a loan more attractive.
Swing space
Space in which occupants of space under construction can temporarily reside.
Switch
An informal name for a telecommunications system, especially the computer that links local outgoing calls with an outside circuit.
Switched access
The use of local trunks provided by a local exchange carrier to complete long-distance telephone calls. See also Dedicated Access.
Synchronous condenser
A synchronous motor operated without any load; used to correct power factor only.
Synchronous motor
An Alternating Current (AC) motor designed to operate with no slip or at synchronous speeds.
Synchronous speed
The speed at which the magnetic field of a motor revolves; measured in rpm.
Synchroscope
An instrument designed to measure both the frequency and the relative phase angle of two different alternating voltages.
Syndicate
Group of insurers or reinsurers involved in joint underwriting to cover major risks that are beyond the capacity of a single insurer.
Syndication
An ownership form in which an individual, called a syndicator, identifies or creates an investment opportunity and attracts investors to provide equity for the project.
System 7
An operating system used by Macintosh computers.
System administrator
Usually a full-time, in-house staffer who can take care of all customization and interfaces not done by system vendors; this person sets up most of the protocols, designs system reports, ensures that backups are made, and makes certain that the system operates smoothly.
System circuit packs
Circuit boards that contain the logic, memory, and switching circuitry for a telecommunications system.
Systems
A concept of design in which components combine and connect, according to certain rules, with a specific degree and type of compatibility. Can also refer to computer or other technological systems (e.g., systems furniture).
Systems furniture
Modular, component furniture that has interlocking panels that form stable, self-supporting structures. Components are hung from the panels, and raceways can be provided for electrical and signal cabling. See also Modular Furniture.
Systems maintenance administrator (sma)
The title designating building engineers and others dealing directly with the mechanical systems and miscellaneous operations of a project.
Systems operator
A person designated to maintain computer hardware and software in operating condition, perform system maintenance functions such as tape backups, and assist users in system operation.





T-1.5 Service
Telecommunications service on a bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps.
Tactical function
A facilities function or action taken in response to a strategy or decision. In the context of the corporate mission, tactical facilities functions carry out these decisions. A tactical process is a series of progressive, interdependent steps that achieve a goal when completed. A tactical procedure usually implies a set method for accomplishing something.
Take-off
A process of preparing a preliminary bid or cost analysis by a tenant finish contractor from a preliminary set of drawings.
Tangible property
Property that has a physical existence and is capable of being touched.
Tank tightness testing
A nondestructive method of determining the integrity of an existing storage tank system.
Target market
The segment of purchasers from which the seller will realize the greatest number of prospective buyers. Also includes specific tenants a building desires to attract in order to create an ideal mix of tenant types.
Task lighting
Lighting designed to illuminate a specific work area (e.g., a work surface) for one worker. See also Ambient Lighting.
Task switching
Keeping one application at a time active in memory, but switching back and forth from one or more dormant applications while the one application is running. See also Multitasking.
Taut-band meter
A type of meter movement in which the coil is suspended in a frame by thin metal ribbons, which are kept taut. A tension spring maintains an even pressure on these ribbons.
Tax credits
Credits for certain eligible expenses that directly reduce tax liability. See also Deductions.
Tax liability
The actual tax a person or company is required to pay a government.
Tax shelter
A creation under governmental regulation which allows an investor to delay or avoid payment of taxes upon income.
Tax-deferred exchange
A transaction in which property is exchanged and the resulting gain is not taxed. Property acquired is considered to be substantially a continuation of the taxpayer's investment in the first property. Tax on the gain is deferred until a future taxable disposition (transfer of ownership) takes place.
TCLP
Toxic characteristic leaching procedure. One test to determine whether a solid waste is classified as a hazardous material.
Team cleaning
The performance of similar tasks by specialized cleaning personnel working as part of a group.
Technical support
The provision of expert guidance, diagnosis, and advice regarding computer hardware and software problems.
Telecommuting
Communicating with a physical workplace via computer and phone lines instead of actually traveling there. See also Hotelling.
Teleconferencing
Conferences of participants held at several sites, all linked by telephone. See also Videoconferencing.
TEM
Transmission electron microscopy. A method of microscopic analysis used for airborne (filter) or bulk samples to definitively identify and quantify asbestos presence and concentration.
Temperature
A measurement expressing the intensity of heat possessed by an object.
Temporary closure
The temporary decommissioning of an underground storage tank system from use.
Tenancy
Real estate multiple ownership forms that typically occur among related parties.
Tenancy by entirety
A special joint tenancy between a lawfully married husband and wife, which places all title to property (real or personal) into the marital unit, with both spouses having an equal, undivided interest in the whole property.
Tenancy in common
A form of concurrent ownership of property between two or more persons, in which each has an undivided interest in the whole property.
Tenant
An organization that commits contractually to occupy leased space, according to the terms of a lease contract. This term is sometimes used informally to describe an organization occupying corporate-owned space managed by a facilities department, but it is more accurate to refer to such groups as customers rather than tenants.
Tenant build-out
Construction and/or alteration of tenant space as defined in a lease.
Tenant build-out level
A project planning level in which basic building systems, especially utilities, are extended into tenant space and configured to meet the needs of a specific tenant.
Tenant estoppel certificate
A written certificate issued by a tenant to the mortgage lender in which the tenant represents the material terms of its lease agreement and any claims or rights of offset against the landlord under the lease.
Tenant finish coordinator
A person charged with the responsibility of coordinating all aspects of the construction of a tenant's suite with the tenant finish contractor. Also called the construction manager.
Tenant mix
A phrase used to describe types of tenant, by business category, in a property to keep duplication of goods and services to a minimum as to ensure complementary uses.
Tenant representative
The firm or individual who has an agreement to represent a tenant in real estate transactions.
Tenant/occupant improvements
Leasing, design, and Construction, either new or alterations, plus furnishings, required to make a space habitable and serviceable for its occupants. See also Tenant Build-out.
Tender
In a contract of mutual promises, the offer, or tender, of performance by one of the parties showing a readiness, a willingness, and an ability to perform under the contract satisfies that party's requirement and thereby makes the other party's obligation to perform absolute.
Tentative rate
Estimated rate that will be subsequently finalized.
Term insurance
Life insurance that is designed to provide death benefits exclusively, rather than any investment features.
Terminal box
A box that regulates airflow from the variable air volume system to the interior space based upon current space conditions.
Terminal reheat systems
A type of air handling system (commonly integrated with Constant Air-Volume (CAV) and Variable Air-Volume (VAV) systems) that maintains comfort in a building by cooling the air at the air handling unit and then reheating the air near its point of use.
Termination by operation of law
When the lease term expires and the tenant redelivers the leased premises to the landlord.
Terrazzo flooring
A type of ground concrete floor finish which results in a smooth surface with a mottled appearance. Good terrazzo is a mixture of 70 percent or more coarse aggregate and 30 percent or less portland cement.
Test fit
A hypothetical space layout of a small part of an organization (a branch or section) drawn to show how the projected space requirements might be accommodated in a given space.
Thermal bow
Deflection induced in the exterior members of aluminum windows or curtain walls when the members are heated by solar radiation but the ends of the members are confined. When straight-line expansion of the member is restricted, the member must bow to accommodate the dimensional change.
Thermal break, nonstructural
A vinyl or polyurethane insulating spacer between members of an interlocking aluminum window frame or sash, providing insulation while allowing aluminum members to carry all necessary structural stress and load. This method limits the stress to the insulating spacer. Its function is to resist heat flow in an otherwise highly conductive structure.
Thermal break, structural
A vinyl or polyurethane member serving both as structural connector and thermal insulator between the interior and exterior metal members of an aluminum window. Its function is to resist heat flow, carry the structural stress and loads of window or curtain wall assemblies, and bond the inner and outer members together.
Thermal conductance (c)
The number of Btus per hour conducted through one square foot of a material or materials for a 1°F temperature difference between the faces. Units are measured by the following formula: Btu/hr-ft2°F or, in SI, W/m2 °C.
Thermal conductivity
A material's ability to conduct heat.
Thermal conductivity (k)
The measurement of heat transmitted through a material. A low k factor indicates that the material is a good thermal insulator. Units of k are Btu-in./hr-ft2-°F or, in SI, W/m °C.
Thermal energy
Energy associated with the movement of molecules and measured as heat.
Thermal insulation
Material that is used to cover surfaces to reduce heat loss or gain by retarding heat flow through the material. Effectiveness is measured by R-value in units of hr-ft2°F/Btu or, in SI, m2°C/W. The higher the R-value, the more effective the thermal insulation. For roofs, the maximum thermal conductance (C value) is 0.5 Btu per hr-sq-ft°F (2.8 W per m2 per°C).
Thermal overload relays
Devices that open an overloaded circuit using the principle that different metals expand or contract at different rates as their temperatures change. These rates are known as the coefficient of expansion.
Thermal overloads
Protection devices found in magnetic motor starters; also known as heaters.
Thermal resistance (R)
The reciprocal of thermal conductance. Units are measured in hr-ft2-°F/Btu or, in SI, m2°C/W. Sometimes called R-value.
Thermal resistivity
The reciprocal of thermal conductivity. Units are hr-ft2°F/Btu-in. or, in SI, m°C/W.
Thermal shock
In roofing, a stress-produced phenomenon resulting from sudden temperature changes in the roof membrane, when, for example, a cold rain shower follows brilliant sunshine.
Thermal stress
Structural stress placed on a material or structures as the result of relative expansion or contraction caused by temperature differentials.
Thermal system insulation
Asbestos-containing material applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts, or other interior structural components to prevent heat loss or gain or water condensation.
Thermocouple
A device that can convert heat into an Electromotive Force (emf), which can then be used to generate a current flow; constructed of two dissimilar metals joined together at each end.
Thermosiphon losses
Heat losses induced by the differences in densities of cooler fluids in the system or surrounding atmosphere.
Third-Party Administration Firm (TPA)
An outside firm hired by the insured to administer the payment of claims for the insured.
Third-party beneficiary
One who may receive the benefits of a contract but who is not a party to the contract.
Third-party claim
Damage or injury that others (a third party) claim you have caused to them or their property. The third party makes a claim against your policy.
Third-party complaint
A claim brought by a defendant against a person not presently a party to the suit alleging that the third person may be liable for some or all of the damages that the plaintiff may win from the defendant.
Third-party market
A substantial base of vendors that develop accessories, such as font packages or memory boards, for widely used primary products, such as popular brands of Personal Computers (PCs) and printers.
Third-party pollution coverage
Covers pollution-related damage or loss which has injured or damaged other people (third parties) or their property.
Three-dimensional capability
Storing mathematical coordinates in three dimensions; the ability to link data in one file with data in another file and to combine the data in one output report or display. See also Relational.
Three-phase current
A type of current involving three separate windings, each generating its own single-phase waveform for each 360 electrical degrees. Each of the three sine waves is separated by 120 electrical degrees.
Threshold planning quantity
The exposure level determined by the EPA at which a chemical is known to be harmful to health, safety, or the environment in an uncontrolled release.
Throttling range
A range of acceptable interior air temperatures that includes the deadband and the temperature ranges on either side of a predetermined temperature setting. It causes the air handling system to vary its operation from providing minimum heating or cooling to providing maximum heating or cooling.
Throughput time
The elapsed time required to process all aspects or steps of a related series of tasks, such as logging, printing, and dispatching a work order or writing, generating, and issuing a purchase order. See also Signaling Speed.
Tightness testing
A nondestructive method of determining the integrity of an existing storage tank system.
Tilt-up panel
A concrete wall section cast in a position that enables erection or rotation above the base. Used mainly in one-story industrial and commercial buildings.
Time standards
Estimates of the time required to perform each cleaning task.
Time value of money
The concept requiring that a rate of return be assigned to capital invested over a period of time.
Time-delay fuses
Fuses that allow for a temporary current overload during motor starting.
TINT
The color produced by adding white to a hue.
TIP Speed
Also referred to as the peripheral velocity of wheel. It is determined by multiplying the circumference of the wheel by the revolutions per minute.
Title
Legal ownership of property.
Title commitment
(1) A written agreement by a title insurance company to issue a title insurance policy. (2) The title company's promise to provide title insurance to the buyer of a property as well as to the lender making the loan in order to facilitate the purchase. A title commitment ensures to the buyer that clear and marketable title can be delivered by the seller at closing.
Title report
A document showing current liens against the property and any encumbrances or easements.
TLVs
Threshold limit values. Exposure values assigned by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to be used as guidelines for controlling health hazards.
To make whole
To restore a nonbreaching party to a contract who has suffered damages resulting from the contract breach.
Token-ring
A method of data transmission in which a wiring hub at the center of a Local Area Network (LAN) puts all nodes in series electrically. The electrical impulses literally go from node to node instead of being broadcast into the cabling.
Toll fraud
Illegal use of telecommunications services; theft of such services.
Ton of refrigeration
A means of expressing cooling capacity. One ton equals 12,000 Btu/hour of cooling.
Tone
The color produced by adding gray to a hue.
Top loan
A portion of a loan that will only be advanced when a prespecified income or cash flow objective is met.
Topology
Basic wiring configurations for Local Area Networks (LANs), usually of two types — bus topology (components are linked to an electronic spine) and star topology (components are linked to a central wiring hub).
Torque
(T) A rotating or twisting force at a given radius in foot-pounds (ft-lb).
Torrens system
An alternative system of recording title to real property, available in some states, under which the state issues a certificate of title to real estate that represents conclusive proof as to who owns title.
Tort
A civil or private wrong for which the law allows a remedy for damages.
Tort liability
Civil wrongs not arising from contracts.
Total architectural construction cost
On a project cost estimate, the total of a general contractor's work, subcontractors' work, and the overhead, profit, and material handling cost.
Total Pressure (TP)
The total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure within a duct system. Total pressure represents the rise of pressure from fan inlet to fan outlet.
Towing And Labor (T&L) insurance
Towing and labor (T&L) coverage pays the cost of towing the covered automobile or providing service at the place of disablement.
Toxic
Any atmospheric concentration of any substance for which OSHA has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) that could result in an employee being exposed to more than the established dose or PEL of that substance.
Toxins
Substances that elicit a poisonous response, for example, the microbes that cause botulism.
TQM
Total Quality Management. Meeting or exceeding customer expectations, not simply providing more or the best of everything; includes three components: input, process, and output.
Tracer gases
Compounds used to identify suspected pollutant pathways and to quantify ventilation rates. May be detected both by their odor and by air monitoring equipment.
Tracking
Referring to data, the process of maintaining and editing data, especially for transactions such as work orders.
Traction elevators
Elevators that depend on cables driven by electric motors to pull the elevator car up the shaft.
Trade fixtures
Personal property affixed to real property by a tenant specifically for use in the tenant's particular trade or business.
Trade secret
Something of economic value to an employer because it is generally not known to other persons and cannot otherwise be ascertained by proper means.
Trade-off
Consideration of both the advantages and drawbacks of several options.
Traditional workplace
Workspaces consisting of freestanding furniture and a predominance of full-height partitions.
Transactional leaders
Leaders who can develop a consensus among people with diverse needs.
Transactions
In software, groups of activities, such as receipt or allocation of inventory items, work requests, and performance logs, that change attributes in a database.
Transdisciplinary profession
In facilities management, a profession that cuts across and draws on the theories and principles of engineering, architecture, design, accounting, finance, management, and behavioral sciences.
Transducers
Devices that convert a signal from one form to another (e.g., acting as an interface between electric and pneumatic signals).
Transferability
A characteristic of real estate requiring some orderly method by which it can be transferred.
Transformer
A device that transfers electric energy from one Alternating Current (AC) circuit to a second AC circuit, with no direct electrical connection. Transformers use electromagnetic energy to either increase (step up) or decrease (step down) the input voltage that is supplied as an output value appropriate for the load.
Transforming leaders
Leaders who can contribute to change.
Transient voltages
A high-amplitude, short-duration pulse superimposed on the normal voltage.
Transmission medium
The path that carries data from one device to another (e.g., a cable connecting two computers on a network).
Transparent
Pertaining to software, linking different programs so smoothly and effortlessly that the procedures for doing so are unnoticed by program users.
Transportation environmental insurance
Coverage for pollution releases that occur during transit or when loading or unloading a vehicle.
Treaty reinsurance
A reinsurance agreement set up in advance of loss that sets out in a contract which amounts and types of losses will be contractually accepted by the reinsurance company.
Trespass
The entry of someone or something onto the property of another without the possessor's permission.
Trespass to chattels
Intentional interference with another's chattels.
Trespass to land
An intentional act that causes physical invasion of another's real property without privilege to do so.
Trespasser
A person who without consent or privilege enters a property.
Triple-net lease
A lease in which the tenant pays for property taxes, insurance, repairs (sometimes even major ones), site maintenance, building upgrades, (possibly even to meet local codes) routine maintenance, and all operating expenses; usually done only for unique single-tenant buildings and long-term occupancies. See also Double-Net Lease and Single-Net Lease.
Troffer
A light fixture, especially a standard recessed fluorescent fixture in a suspended ceiling.
Trophy property
A piece of real estate that is known by name throughout the nation/world. An example: Rockefeller Center in New York City.
Troubleshooting
The diagnostic process used to determine the cause of abnormal operating conditions in equipment.
True power
The power consumed in a purely resistive Alternating Current (AC) circuit measured in watts.
Trunks
Telephone lines from a building to the local exchange carrier or long-distance carrier.
Trust
An arrangement whereby legal title to property is transferred by the grantor (or trustor) to a person called a trustee, to be held and managed by that person for the benefit of another, called a beneficiary.
Trustee's sale
A sale held by the trustee wherein the property has been acquired by the trustee after a default has occurred under the terms of the note and deed of trust.
TSCA
Toxic Substances Control Act. Directs EPA to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and use of toxic chemicals in commerce.
TSD (Treatment, Storage, and Disposal) facility
A facility that treats, stores (for more than ninety days), or disposes of solid wastes on-site as defined by Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA).
TSR
Telemarketing service representative or, in computer terminology, a terminate-and-stay-resident software program (one that resides in memory even if not used).
Tuned filter
A circuit element that can be adjusted to pass certain frequencies and block others to eliminate distortion.
Tungsten-halogen lamp
A form of incandescent lamp that combines a tungsten filament and halogen gas to produce a clean, white light with very few lost lumens during the life of the lamp.
Turnaround time
The time from the original space planning meeting to the delivery of a preliminary space plan.
Turnkey
An approach in which the developer handles all aspects of project development and execution and then turns the keys over to the customer upon completion.
Turnkey build-out
A tenant build-out for which a landlord agrees to provide all components and labor.
Twa
Time-weighted average. Varying concentrations of a contaminant averaged over the duration of the work activity.
Twisted pair
Two or more pairs of twisted copper wires; traditionally used for telephone systems and some computer networks. Available as shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP).
Two-bottle spot-cleaning kit
A kit used for carpeting maintenance that consists of one bottle of solution for removing water-soluble soils and another for removing oil-soluble soils.
Two-dimensional capability
The ability to link different data fields within the same file. See also Three-Dimensional Capability.
Two-step bidding
A variation on formal bidding used when price is the dominant but not the only award factor. The first step is to establish technical acceptability. In the second step, bids reveal the lowest-priced, technically acceptable offer.
Type s fuse
A tamper-resistant fuse using different thread sizes based on the amperage or protection required.



U.S. Longshoremen and Harborworkers endorsement (U.S.L&H)
Provides coverage for employees on navigable waters.
U.S. savings bond
An obligation of the United States federal government, sold at a discount in face amounts of $100 to $10,000.
U.S. treasury bill
A full faith and credit interest-bearing obligation of the United States government issued at a discount to mature at par value after a term of ninety days to one year.
U.S. treasury bond
A full faith and credit interest-bearing obligation of the United States government issued at approximately par value for a term of approximately eleven to thirty years.
U.S. treasury note
A full faith and credit interest-bearing obligation of the United States government issued at approximately par value for terms of approximately one to ten years.
U.S. treasury strips
Zero-coupon bonds issued by the Treasury.
UCD
Uniform call distributors. Telephone systems that distribute incoming calls according to a preprogrammed pattern.
UFL oR UEL
Upper flammable limit or upper explosive limit. With a chemical liquid, the highest concentration or percentage of vapor in the air that will produce a flash of fire when ignited.
Umbrella liability insurance
A catastrophe liability policy to provide excess liability coverage over that of underlying liability policies and also to provide liability coverage in some situations excluded by underlying liability policies.
Umbrella self-insured retention
A deductible that the insured must pay before the umbrella liability policy starts to pay. However, note that this deductible or self-insured retention only applies when there is no applicable underlying insurance coverage provided by the underlying automobile, general liability, or employer liability insurance coverage.
Unbounded media
Air through which data is transmitted via electromagnetic waves. See also Bounded Media.
Unbundling
An insurance company's way of offering a menu of claims-handling services to clients. The clients can pick and choose from the menu of services without being required to buy insurance.
Uncertainty
When a possible occurrence is so unpredictable that its outcome is pure chance.
Under contract
This means that all terms and conditions regarding the sale of the property are mutually agreed upon by the buyer and seller, and the contract (reflecting the same terms and conditions) has been executed between the parties.
Undercoat
The layer or layers of paint that cover the surface, build up film thickness, and furnish an even surface for the final coat.
Underfloor
Anything placed below the finished floor surface of a space. In reference to access flooring, usually cabling, electricity, and air distribution; in reference to conventional poured concrete floors, usually ducts (small shaftways) built into the floor that carry electrical and telephone cabling.
Underground Storage Tank (UST) insurance
Insurance that meets federal and state financial responsibility requirements for owners and operators of underground storage tanks containing petroleum products. Covers pollution releases from scheduled tanks.
Underlying insurance
Required valid and adequate liability insurance coverage provided by the policies underlying the umbrella policy.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
An organization that disseminates test data on a wide scope of equipment it has tested to determine whether the equipment meets the UL's high safety standards.
Underwriting
The process of determining the risks to be accepted or declined, the terms and conditions of the coverage to be offered, and the cost of insurance.
Undue influence
Another means of overcoming a party's free will.
Unearned premiums
That portion of the insurance premium that has not been used up or earned and which is due to the policyholder upon policy cancellation.
Unencumbered
Free of all liens, debts, and claims.
Unenforceable contract
A contract that may have been enforceable at some point in time but, because of some intervening occurrence, no longer has legal effect or force.
Unfunded reserve
Basically a paper entry or accounting liability entry on the books of the company from which losses would be credited or debited.
Uniform lighting
A system in which the entire area is lit at about the same level, using any method from direct to indirect.
Uniform Partnership Act (UPA)
A model partnership statute that has been adopted, with relatively few changes, by all states except Louisiana.
Unilateral contract
A contract in which a promise is exchanged for an act or forbearance.
Uninsured motorist coverage
An endorsement to a personal automobile policy that covers bodily injury or property damage caused by a third party who either has no insurance, has inadequate insurance, or is a hit-and-run driver.
Uninterrupted Power Source (UPS)
A generator and/or battery system that, in the event of a power failure, provides power to life-safety systems (e.g., fire alarms, emergency exit lighting, and elevators). Also called Emergency Power System.
Unit cost
A method of assigning a cost to each unit of a commodity; usually used with large quantities, such as gallons of paint, numbers of outlets, or square feet of partitions.
Unit pricing
A schedule of prices for tenant finish of individual units of construction, e.g., light fixtures, doors, cost per lineal foot of drywall, etc.
Unitary cooling system
A cooling system comprised of multiple, self-contained cooling plants (including through-the-wall and ceiling-mounted air conditioners) located throughout a building.
United states constitution
The document that creates the basic organization of our government and sets forth certain fundamental rights, rules, and principles by which all U.S. citizens are governed.
Universal agent
(1) An agent who is vested with authority to do all that a principal may personally do, and can transact all of the business of his or her principal of every kind. (2) An agent vested with the authority to transact all of the business of his or her principal.
Universal precautions
An approach to infection control that treats all human blood and certain human body fluids as if they were known to be infected with HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens.
Universal slot
A telecommunications system carrier slot for the port circuit packs designed to accept any type of port circuit pack.
UNIX
A 32-bit operating system developed by AT&T Bell Labs; primarily for workstation minicomputers that use engineering, scientific, and graphic applications.
Unlicensed or nonadmitted insurance companies
Insurance companies that do business in those states in which they are not admitted or licensed through excess and surplus lines brokers.
Unprogrammed costs
Costs not anticipated or included in a budget but incurred, such as for an emergency repair.
Unpublished reserve
The minimum auction bid amount that the seller will accept that is not disclosed to buyers.
Unqualified opinion
Usually referred to as a "clean audit letter." All companies strive for this evaluation.
Unscheduled maintenance
Maintenance required to repair a failure or impending failure.
Upflow
A term applied to designate the direction (up) in which water flows through the ion exchange bed during any phase of the operating cycle.
Upgrades
New, improved versions of previously written software programs; also, enhancements to hardware components, such as a math coprocessor added to an existing computer chip to speed up numeric processing.
Upper memory
The portion of a PC's memory between 640 and 1,024 kilobytes. See also Conventional Memory and Extended Memory.
UPS
Uninterruptible power supply. A system of batteries that supply continuous current to computer and other mission-critical components during a power outage and ensure brief periods of a few minutes to shut down these components without data loss.
Usable area
That area of a space that may actually be occupied by a user. [Equation: Usable area = Rentable area - Common area]
Use
The approved business use as defined by local codes or as identified in the lease agreement.
Use value
The value a specific property has for a specific use.
User
The generic definition of the occupant of a space. This may be a tenant, a company or a department. A given space may have more than one user for each tier of definition.
User-friendly
The characteristic of being easy to understand in layperson's terms, especially by those unfamiliar with computer terminology and procedures. See also Intuitive.
Usury
Charging interest at a rate greater than that permitted by law.
Utilities
In computer terminology, a group of software programs used for file management, disk maintenance, file transfer, and other general computer-support functions. In building terminology, the services and systems that supply HVAC, electrical, plumbing, and related energy and resources.
Utility
A characteristic of real estate investment indicating that it has the power of an economic good. It fills a human need or provides a desired service.
Utility power main
The point at which the power company delivers usable electric power to the customer. Also associated with converting higher voltage down to lower voltage.
Utilization Review (UR) programs
Health insurance plans in which the employee may be required to seek a second opinion before having specified surgical procedures performed, to ensure they are medically necessary.
U-value
The measure of heat conductivity of a material or structural unit, expressed as Btus per square foot (kilojoules per square meter) per degrees difference per hour. Lower U-values provide greater resistance to heat transmissions.


Vacancy
A state of being unoccupied and not containing enough business or personal property to conduct business. Such a state restricts or eliminates coverage for property losses.
Vacancy permit
A policy endorsement that will allow you to have a vacant building without penalty if a loss occurs.
Vacancy rate
The current vacant square footage or meters in a facility divided by the total usable area and multiplied by 100. For example, if the facility currently has 12,000 square feet vacant and the usable area is 200,000 then the vacancy rate is 6 percent.
Valence
The outermost electron shell or subshell of an atom.
Valid consideration
Consideration is something given in return, ie., money, a promise, or anything that is an inducement to keep the agreement. There must be valid consideration given by each party to the contract.
Valuable papers insurance
Coverage for loss to such documents as leases, contracts, blueprints, etc., which covers such costs as labor, copying, and employing outside services to assist in reproducing these papers.
Valuation
The process of estimating the market value, insurable value, investment value, or other properly defined value of an identified interest or interests in a specific parcel or parcels of real estate as of a given date.
Value
The monetary worth of property, goods, services, etc. When utility, scarcity, demand, and transferability are present in any economic good. Also, the present worth of future benefits that accrue to real property ownership.
Value engineer
The process or individual used to review designs or specifications to achieve cost savings through substitution or modification, without sacrificing design intent or performance.
Value engineering
Evaluation of construction methods and/or materials to determine which have the net result of reducing costs, consistent with specified performance, reliability, maintainability, aesthetic, safety, and security criteria.
Value-added
The gain, usually corporate profit, sales, or market share, that an activity produces.
Valued policy laws
A law that requires the insurer to pay the full insured amount even in cases of overinsurance on the theory that the insurance companies had a duty to inspect the insured properties to determine if overinsurance existed.
Vapor
The gaseous form of a liquid.
Vapor barrier
A barrier designed to restrict passage of water vapor through a wall or roof. In the roofing industry, barrier material should be rated at 0.2 perm or less. A covering of metal foil or plastic that inhibits the transmission of moisture or vapor through it; used in conjunction with building insulation. See also Permeance.
Vapor density
The weight of a gas or vapor compared with air.
Vapor migration
The movement of water-vapor molecules from a region of higher vapor pressure to a region of lower vapor pressure, penetrating building roofs and walls.
Variable Air-Volume System (VAV)
A system giving a building greater flexibility in providing conditioned air to various spots on a floor based on outside air temperature, solar load, and internal heat-generating equipment. A type of air-handling system that maintains comfort in buildings by varying the quantity of air supplied.
Variable expenses
Expenses influenced by occupancy levels and the quality of professional management. Management skill and knowledge greatly affect the level of these expenses. See also Fixed Expenses.
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Motor speed control devices that changes the normal 60 Hz line voltage supplied to an Alternating Current (AC) induction motor to another frequency to vary its synchronous speed.
Variable payment mortgage
A mortgage that requires periodic payments in varying amounts during the term of the loan.
Varnish
A colorless coating that protects a surface without hiding its appearance.
VDT
Video display terminal. The monitor screen on which the video data associated with computer systems, especially Personal Computers (PCs), is displayed.
VDT standard (ANSI/HFS)
An ergonomic guideline developed by the American National Standards Institute and the Human Factors Society for video display terminal (VDT) work.
Vehicle
The binder and solvent combined together in a paint.
Veiling reflection
A light source perceived as an image within the surface on which a task is being performed. Also reduction in contrast between a task and its background caused by the reflection of light rays. Sometimes called reflected glare.
Velocity
The speed in feet per minute at which air is moving at any location (e.g., through a duct, inlet damper, outlet damper, fan discharge point, etc.). When the performance data for air-handling equipment is given in feet per minute, conversion to cubic feet per minute can be made by multiplying the feet per minute by the duct area.
Velocity of money
The average number of times that a given unit of money is spent annually to purchase goods and services.
Velocity Pressure (VP)
Velocity pressure results only when air is in motion and is measured in inches of water (
14 Dec 2009
16:12:17
Braun

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